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Task 1:

According to archaeologists and anthropologists,
the earliest clothing likely consisted of fur, leather,
leaves or grass which were draped, wrapped or
tied around the body. Knowledge of such clothing
remains inferential, since clothing materials
deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell
and metal artifacts. Archeologists have identified
very early sewing needles of bone and ivory from about 30,000 BC, found near
Kostenki, Russia in 1988. Dyed fibers that could have been used in clothing have been
found in a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia that date back to 36,000 BC.
Scientists are still debating when people started wearing clothes. Ralf Kittler, Manfred
Kayser and Mark Stoneking, anthropologists at the Max Planck Institute for
Evolutionary Anthropology, have conducted a genetic analysis of human body lice that
suggests clothing originated quite recently, around 107,000 years ago. Body lice is an
indicator of clothes-wearing, since most humans have sparse body hair, and lice thus

require human clothing to survive. Their research suggests the invention of clothing
may have coincided with the northward migration of modern Homo sapiens away from
the warm climate of Africa, thought to have begun between 50,000 and 100,000 years
ago. However, a second group of researchers using similar genetic methods estimate
that clothing originated around 540,000 years ago.


Task 2: Read the following statements and decide whether they are true (T) or false
1. Long time ago, the clothing was made of well-designed material.
2. Stone, bone, shell and metal artefacts were put into making clothes.
3. Bone and ivory were found near Kostenki, Russia from about 10,000 BC.
4. People also found dyed fibers in Russia about 36,000 BC.
5. Invention of clothing may have coincided with the migration.
6. Scientists are still doubtful about the time people started to wear clothing.

Task 3: Read the following passage and answer the questions

The textile trade in the ancient world
The exchange of luxury textiles was predominant on
the Silk Road, a series of ancient trade and cultural
transmission routes that were central to cultural
interaction through regions of the Asian continent
connecting East and West by linking traders,
merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads and
urban dwellers from China to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.
The trade route was initiated around 114 BC by the Han Dynasty, although earlier
trade across the continents had already existed. Geographically, the Silk Road or Silk

Route is an interconnected series of ancient trade routes between Chang'an in China,
with Asia Minor and the Mediterranean extending over 8,000 km (5,000 miles) on
land and sea. Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the
great civilizations of China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, the Indian subcontinent, and
Rome, and helped to lay the foundations for the modern world.


During the industrial revolution, production was
mechanised with machines powered by waterwheels
and steam-engines. Sewing machines emerged in the
nineteenth century. Synthetic fibers such as nylon
were invented during the twentieth century.
Clothing and textile manufacture expanded as an
industry so that such unions as the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers of America and the Textile
Workers Union of America formed early in the twentieth century Later in the
twentieth century, the industry had expanded to such a degree that such educational
institutions as UC Davis established a Division of Textiles and Clothing, The
University of Nebraska-Lincoln also created a Department of Textiles, Clothing and
Design that offers a Masters of Arts in Textile History, and Iowa State University
established a Department of Textiles and Clothing that features a History of costume
collection, 1865-1948. Even high school libraries have
collections on the history of clothing and textiles.
Alongside these developments were changes in the
types and style of clothing worn by humans. During the







developments in the industry. Textiles were not only
made in factories. Before this that they were made in
local and national markets. Dramatic change in
transportation throughout the nation is one source that encouraged the use of factories.
New advances such as steamboats, canals, and railroads lowered shipping costs which
caused people to buy cheap goods that were produced in other places instead of more
expensive goods that were produced locally. Between 1810 and 1840 the development
of a national market prompted manufacturing which tripled the output’s worth. This
increase in production created a change in industrial methods, such as the use of
factories instead of hand made woven materials that families usually made. The vast
majority of the people that worked in the factories were women. Women went to go
work in textile factories because of some of the following reasons. Crowding at home

was indeed a cause for them to leave and be on their own. The need to save for future
marriage portions also motivated these women to decide to work in the millhouses.
The work enabled them to see more of the world, to earn something in anticipation of
marriage, and to ease the crowding within the home. They also did it to make money

for family back home. The money they sent home was to help out with the trouble
some of the farmers were having. They also worked in the millhouses because they
could gain a sense of independence and growth as a personal goal.
1. What was predominant on the Silk Road?
2. What was the silk road?
3. Who joined in the silk road?
4. Where was the silk road first located?
5. What bought the development to the civilizations of China, Egypt,
Mesopotamia, Persia, the Indian subcontinent, and Rome?
6. What brought the industrial revolution?
7. When did the textile revolution take place?
8. Where were the textile first made?
9. Why did people start not buy local expensive goods?
10. Why did women go out for work?

Task 4: Put the verbs into the correct form (simple past).
1. Last year I (spend) ___________ my holiday in Ireland.
2. It (be) ____________ great.
3. I (travel) ___________ around by car with two friends and we (visit)
__________ lots of interesting places.
4. In the evenings we usually (go) ____________ to a pub.
5. One night we even (learn) ____________ some Irish dances.
6. We (be) ___________ very lucky with the weather.
7. It (not / rain) ___________ a lot.

8. But we (see) ___________ some beautiful rainbows.
9. Where (spend / you) ____________ your last holiday?

Task 6: Make questions for the underlined words
1. They wanted to see Fiona
2. I got up at 7 o'clock.
3. She paid $10.
4. He didn't like the movie.
5. We had dinner.
6. The meeting finished late.
7. I ate an apple pie
8. I played tennis last week.
9. They wrote to Ellen.
10. I didn't eat the chicken.

Task 5: Combine the words into sentences
1. Fashion design/ become/ job/ in the 19th century.
2. People’s tastes/ make/ fashion/ develop.
3. He/ met / her/ university.
4. A shirt/ usually/ upper-body/ clothing/
5. They /usually/ have/ sleeves/ collar/ a front opening.
6. Ladies business suits/ be/ complete/ must/ for today's professional women.
7. People from all over the world try to look nice in their clothes.
8. Clothes/ can/ tell/people’s occupation/ education/ cultural level.


Task 1:

Taking Measurements
There is a proper way to take measurements to give the
best fit when making a garment. You should keep an

accurate record of all your measurements, and check
them each time you start to prepare a new pattern.
Be aware of manufacturer's sizes. Keep in mind that
different manufacturers sizes are different. One retailers
size 14 is anothers 16, and yet anothers 12. Knowing
your size doesn't mean knowing your measurements.
Keep track of your own measurements. This is the whole idea of customization used in
our patterns.
It is also important that you take your measurements accurately to be sure the garment
will fit you.
Taking an accurate set of measurements is not difficult, but takes care. We suggest that
you ask your relative or friend to help you.







undergarments. Do not pull the measuring tape snug too
tight. Let yourself breathe!
We strongly recommend you use the metric system. Metric
measurements are more accurate and easier to use than


imperial. Regular measuring tape has both inches and centimeters on it. Please round
your metric measurements to whole numbers (e.g. 102 cm). Don't round measurements
in inches though, or you'll end

up 1.27


over or






Basic measurements
1. Height: Stand straight (not too straight, just as usual) with your back, your head
and your heels against the wall. Ask a Measurer to mark a spot at the wall using a
ruler that goes on top of your head perpendicular to the wall. Measure the vertical
distance from the floor to the mark.

2. Bust: Take this measurement over the fullest part of the bust and across the widest
part of the back. The measuring tape should go horizontally all around your body.
3. Waist: To locate your waistline, tie a narrow string around the waist and let it
settle into the natural waistline as you bend to the left and to the right. Take the
measurement along the stringline.
4. Hips: Take the measurement around the fullest part, which is usually 18cm (7") to
23cm (9") below the waist.

Taking The Key Body Measurements
1) Apex of bust - From the base of the neck to
the highest point on the bust.
2) Chest front - From armhole to armhole
3) Bust - From bust line around the fullest part
of the back, (all the way around).
4) Neck to waist
5) Waist
6) Waist to hem.
7) Side waist to hem.
8) Shoulder to waist
9) Skirt yoke.
10) Hips - Measure the fullest part of the hips.
11) Inside the arm.
12) Shoulder
13) Shoulder to waist.

14) Neck (nape) to waist (back).
15) Elbow to wrist
16) Back, armhole to armhole

17) Shoulder to elbow
18) Waist (back)
19) Upper arm
20) Skirt yoke (back)
21) Hip (back)
22) Wrist
23) Elbow
24) Waist to hem.

Language Study
Task 2: Fill in the blanks with the provided words in
the box to find out the use of the following tools

A basic sewing kit
1. Pincushion

7. Thimble

2. Scissors

8. Tracing paper

3. Seam ripper

9. Iron

4. Tailor’s chalk

10. Ironing board

5. Thread

11. Pins

6. Tape measure

12. Needle

1. ______________ is a transparent paper used for copying or drawing.
2. _______________ is an implement with a flat base heated for smoothing cloth or

3. _______________ is a small thin pointed piece of steel used in sewing cloth
4. A thin length of cotton or wool used for sewing, knitting or making cloth is called
5. ________________ is a kind of soft limestone used for drawing on cloth.
6. A cap of metal worn on the end of the finger to protect it in sewing is
7. A tool used for measuring length is called _______________.
8. ______________ is a small tool used for
tearing thread.
9. _____________ is a small pad for sticking
needles to keep them ready for use.
10. _______________ is made of wood used for
putting clothes when ironing.
11. _____________ is a cutting instrument with
two pivoted blades.

12. _______________ is a short- pointed piece of metal used for fastening things
Task 4: Match the number of the sewing tools in the above box with the pictures



b. …..

g. …..







k. …..


Task 3: Put the correct forms of the verbs into the gaps. Use the Simple Present in
the statement
1. We ______________our dog. (to call)
2. Emma _____________in the lessons. (to dream)
3. They _____________ at birds. (to look)
4. John _____________home from school. (to come)
5. I _____________my friends. (to meet)
6. John _____________home from school. (to come)
7. I _____________my friends. (to meet)
8. He _____________the laptop. (to repair)
9. Walter and Frank _____________hello. (to say)
10. The cat _____________under the tree. (to sit)
11. You water. (to drink)
12. She the lunchbox. (to forget)
Task 4: Fill in the blank with provided words in the box
Break On brush by do finish get go have his
starts surf to until watch




Habits & Routines
"On weekdays, I (1)__________ up at half past

seven. I (2)___________ a shower, my hair and dressed. I go to school car. School
(3)__________ at a quarter eight. (4)__________ is from quarter past eleven quarter to
twelve. School (5)__________ at half past two. I (6)__________ lunch at three

...............On Saturday, he (7)__________ hockey the morning. In the evening, he
(8)__________ to the cinema and (9)__________ to bed at half past one. Sunday
morning he (10)__________ homework and in the evening TV.

Unit 3:

Task 1: Read the following text

Basic Sewing Techniques
* Types of Stitches
1. Backstitch
Backstitch is the strongest hand stitch and is
used to imitate machine stitches.
Work backstitch from right to left. Begin with a
couple of stitches worked on the spot, then take

a stitch and a space. Take the needle back over the space and bring it out the same
distance in front of the thread. Continue to the end of the seam. Fasten off with a
couple of stitches on the spot.
2. Catchstitch
This is a hemming stitch used for bulky





Work from right to left. Fasten the thread to
the edge of the folded fabric with a few
backstitches. Make a diagonal stitch from right to left, then, with the needle pointing to
the left, make a small stitch in the fabric from right to left. Bring the needle out and
make a diagonal stitch from right to left. Do not pull the thread too tight.
3. Hemming Stitch
Work from right to left with a single
thread. Fasten the thread with a knot
inside the hem. Bring the needle out of the
hem and pick up a few threads of flat fabric just above the folded edge. Make the same
stitch through the folded fabric. Work your way along the hem making the stitches as
invisible as possible on the right side.
4. Herringbone Stitch
This stitch neatens a single hem and
catches it to the fabric at the same time.
Work from left to right. Secure the thread
with a few backstitches. Make a long diagonal stitch from left to right across the raw
edge and back through the flat fabric, about 0.25" (6mm) from the hem edge. With the
needle pointing to the left, make a small stitch in the fabric from right to left. Bring the
needle out and make another long diagonal stitch from left to right so that the threads
cross. The stitches should be evenly spaced and
the same size.

5. Oversewing Stitch

Oversewing, or overcasting is the best way to neaten a raw edge by hand to prevent the
fabric from fraying.
Relate the length of the stitch to the fabric and how badly it will fray. Begin with a few
backstitches. Make diagonal stitches over the raw edge, spacing them equally and the
same length. Be careful not to pull the stitches too tight.

6. Running Stitch
This stitch is used for seams and for gathering.
Fasten the thread with a few backstitches and work
small stitches by passing the needle over and
under a few fabric threads and pulling through the
fabric. Keep the stitches and spaces as even as

7. Slipstitch
This stitch is used for holding a folded edge to a flat piece of fabric.
Work from right to left with a single thread
fastened with a knot hidden inside the hem.
Bring the needle out through the folded edge,
pick up a few threads of fabric and then work
through the fold again. Slide the needle along,
come out of the fold to make the next stitch.
8. Tacking Stitch
This is used to hold fabric in position while it is
being permanently stitched. Work with single or

double thread, knotted at the end, and make
evenly spaced stitches in and out of the fabric.
End a line of tacking with one backstitch. To
release tacking stitches, cut off the knot and pull out the thread.

Task 2: Match the information in column A with column B
1. Backstitch
2. Slipstitch
3. Tacking stitch
4. Running stitch
5. Oversewing stitch
6. Herringbone stitch
7. Hemming stitch
8. Catchstitch

a. This is used to hold fabric in position while it is being
permanently stitched.
b. It is the strongest hand stitch and is used to imitate
machine stitches.
c. This is a hemming stitch used for bulky fabrics or curved
d. This stitch neatens a single hem and catches it to the fabric
at the same time.
It’s also called overcastting. It is the best way to neaten a
raw edge by hand to prevent the fabric from fraying.
e. This stitch is used for seams and for gathering.

This stitch is used for holding a folded edge to a flat piece
of fabric.

Task 3: Read the following text

Basic Seam Types
There are a number of different types of seams that have been developed over the
years to do different jobs. When you have chosen your fabric and pattern, you need
to think about the most suitable way to sew the garment together. This will depend
partly on the type of fabric, partly on the use the garment will get, and partly on the
finish you want.
There are a few terms that you will need to know so that you can understand what
the different parts of the seam are:

Cutting line: the line on which the garment is cut out

Stitching line/seam line: the line on which the seam is sewn


Seam allowance: the area of fabric between the stitching line and the cutting
line. This is usually 5/8" or 1.5cm. Some patterns allow more in some areas,
and some allow less. Always check before making up a pattern.

Flat Seam
A simple way of joining 2 pieces of fabric together with a
single row of stitches.
To sew this seam, place the fabric right sides together, and
sew 5/8"/1.5cm from the cut edge, using a straight stitch.
Press the seam allowance open.
This is the basic seam used as a basis for many of the
others, and still the best option for a wide range of garments and fabric types. It is very
good on fabrics that are fine but do not fray. It is also the standard seam for sewing
any garment that is to be lined.

French Seam

A self neatening seam that is usually used to join
sheer fabrics where no stitches show on the right side.
To sew this seam, start with the fabric wrong sides
together. Sew the seam very close to the edge; about
¼"/ 4mm from the cut edge. Trim off any thready or
uneven bits, and press closed. Turn the fabric right sides
together and press again. Sew the seam again, this time
about 3/8"/5mm from the edge, enclosing the cut edge, again using a straight stitch.
Press to one side. This seam is useful on light fabrics, which can fray. It is also useful
on semi-sheer fabrics. It can be used on blouses and shirts, and on some underwear.


Gathering is used to add frills. A frill before it is gathered needs to be at least 1.5
times it's finished length, but making it twice as long

gives a much better effect. When gathering on a sewing
machine, use a heavy-duty thread on the bobbin for extra
strength and loosen the upper tension slightly.

Work 2 rows of stitches, 0.25" (6 mm) either side of

the seam line and knot the threads at one end.

Gently pull the bobbin threads from one end
feeding the fabric evenly down the gathers.

Wind the threads in a figure of eight round a pin
at the side when the required length is achieved.

Instead of machine stitches a small running stitch
can be used especially when a long length is to be
gathered. It may take longer but there is less
chance of the thread breaking.

Task 4: Put the verb in brackets in the correct form to make different form of the
Present Continuous Tense.
1. John (read) ____________ a book now.
2. What you (do) ____________ tonight?
3. Jack and Peter (work) ____________ late today.

4. Silvia (not listen) ____________ to music.
5. Maria (sit) ____________ next to Paul.
6. How many other students you (study) ____________ with?
7. The phone (not ring) ____________.
Task 5: Reorder the words to make different sentences
1 for I'm my looking glasses.
2 book kind are of What you reading?

3 Pamela is crying? Why
4 National economics at Paul is University studying Kharkov
5 everyone is Why laughing?
6 for Are you me? waiting
7 leaving? are you When
8 in is working at moment. Saudi the John Arabia
9 company as for Is working Jennifer same you? the
10 next party do to Saturday come? want you I'm - a having

Task 6: Put the verb in brackets in the correct form, either the Present Simple Tense or

the Present Continuous Tense.
1. I (read)_____________a very interesting book today.
2. Joanne (work) ____________ eight hours a day.
3. Tonight we (see) _____________ a play at the theatre.
4. Who you (talk) ____________ to ?
5. I (know) ___________ him very well.
6. What will you do if she (be) ___________ late?
7. My wife (drink) ____________ coffee for breakfast.
8. What you (eat/ usually) ____________ for breakfast?

9. Your train (leave) ____________ at 17.25 from platform 3.
10. What she (do) ____________ ? She's a student.


When to Use a Curriculum Vitae
When should job seekers use a curriculum vitae,
commonly referred to as CV, rather than a resume? In
the United States, a curriculum vitae is used primarily
when applying for academic, education, scientific or
research positions. It is also applicable when applying
for fellowships or grants.

The Differences between a Resume and a CV

There are several differences between a curriculum vitae and a resume. A curriculum
vitae is a longer (up to two or more pages), more detailed synopsis of your background
and skills. A CV includes a summary of your educational and academic backgrounds
as well as teaching and research experience, publications, presentations, awards,
honors, affiliations and other details.
Like a resume, a curriculum vitae should include your name, contact information,
education, skills and experience. In addition to the basics, a CV includes research and
teaching experience, publications, grants and fellowships, professional associations
and licenses, awards and other information relevant to the position you are applying

Most common errors on presentation letters/emails

Applying to the wrong job: this really confuses me... if I post an add for a
software developer why do I get a CV from a lawyer? Don't just send resumes to
everyone, choose well!

Not being exclusive: I really don't like to receive an email with a CV and then
noticed that the email was sent to 10/20/50 different companies. You can even be
well intentioned but the feeling I immediately have is you just didn't care, and
collected a few email addresses and they send the same thing to all... For you,
working at my company or any other is the same, and that doesn't scores points!

Templates: It's normal to get a presentation letter template, but pay really attention
to changing a few details, like the name of the company... some people, when
applying to several jobs, forget to change the name of the companies between mails
and then company "A" receives a letter saying "I'm very interested in working on
company B"... Don't let this happen, remember details are very important!

Most common errors on CV's

Too much information: don't get in the temptation to write everything about your
life, remember, it's a resume... Just write the important information;


Dispersing: if you're applying to a computer technician job and you worked in 3
other computer companies, then Macdonald's, kfc, or other things, just present the
computer companies jobs. Keep just the relevant information for the specific job
you're applying to, but if you only got experience in companies that don't relate to
the jobs in question, then you can present them.

Your Contact Information
Cell Phone
Personal Information
Date of Birth
Place of Birth
Visa Status
Optional Personal Information
Marital Status
Spouse's Name
Employment History
List in chronological order, include position details and dates
Work History
Academic Positions

Research and Training

Include dates, majors, and details of degrees, training and certification
High School
Graduate School
Post-Doctoral Training
Professional Qualifications
Certifications and Accreditations
Computer Skills

Professional Memberships

Write a Curriculum Vitae to apply for a job.

Job vacancy - an example
In this example, you have seen the following job advertised and you want to apply:
Westfords Ltd.
Require IT Support Officers
40 hours per week – 8.45 am – 5.15 pm.
Photo ID personalisation and smart card encoding company are seeking IT support


Responsibilities include upkeep of computers and in-house software and quality
assurance of products.
Must have experience with computers.
Knowledge of printers preferred but not essential as full training given.
Apply in writing with a covering letter and CV to:
Mr Knight
Westfords Ltd
500 Sample Street
Sample Town

Identifying important information in the advert
The following is the important information contained in the advert.
The company
Westfords Ltd. You could look at their website to learn more about the company, if
they don't have a website you might be able to find information at your local library.
This research might help you to write your application.
Job title and duties

IT Support Officer

upkeep of computers and in-house software

checking consumables and in-house software

quality assurance of finished products

Qualifications and skills needed

must have experience with computers

printer experience preferred but not essential as full training will be given


no rate given - ring to check


40 hours per week: Monday to Friday 8.45 am – 5.15 pm

How to apply

in writing - with a covering letter and a CV

Writing a covering letter
What to include
Underline the skills in the advert. Write a rough copy of your
letter and include the skills underlined. Be positive and
emphasise why you are perfect for the job. You should
include any relevant skills you have.

Suggested layout
First, give a summary of your skills and experience. Keep it
brief and to the point. Then, say when you will be free for







address, phone number (if you have one), the date and
enclose a copy of your CV.
What to say

Be clear. Don’t use a long word if a short one will do. If you have been unemployed
for a while, say how you spend your spare time (for example, by doing voluntary
work, study and so on). Be honest, don’t say you enjoy bungee jumping if you get
dizzy standing on a kitchen stool, you will get caught out at an interview. Keep to the
facts and try not to oversell yourself.
How to say it
Include the job reference number if there is one in the job details. Enter it below the
opening line. For example:
Dear Mrs……
Re: Job reference 345