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SENTENCE ELEMENTS

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(1)PHẦN IV. - SENTENCE ELEMENTS I.. SUBJECT (S):. 1. Definition: Gender to be the action doer or described or mentioned. (là chủ thể của hành động hay đối tượng được miêu tả). 2. Classification: a. Subject pronouns: (đại từ nhân xưng chủ ngữ) First Person Second Person Third Person Singular form I You He, She, It Plural form We You They Eg. He went abroad to study medicine. They were killed in an accident. b. Nouns, or noun phrases: eg. Love is a stage of feeling and can’t be recognized by senses. Gain and loss go together. c. Gerunds: eg. Fishing is his favourite pastime. Getting good marks is not always difficult. d. Clauses: eg. What we really wish is to be at the cinema. All she can say is that he is a liar.. II.. COMPLEMENTS (C):. 1. Definition: Element to be described or mentioned usually follows the verb to be or link verbs. (là thành tố hoàn thành câu, thường theo sau “to be” hoặc các link verbs). 2. Classification: a. Nouns, or noun phrases: eg. She is a kind hearted lady. They became the new employees. b. Gerunds: eg. Her hobby is singing. c. Verbs: eg. My dream is to become a teacher. d. Clauses: eg. A full apology is what the boss wants now./ A smile is all he could do and what he should do. Notes: Có 2 loại bổ ngữ; bổ ngữ của chủ ngữ (Cs) – She was exhausted – và bổ ngữ của tân ngữ (Co) – The long walk made us exhausted.. III.. OBJECTS (O):. 1. Definition: Gender to be described or mentioned usually follows ordinary verbs to show the direct or indirect goals that the verbs aim at. (là thành tố hoàn thành câu, thường theo sau động từ thường chỉ hướng hay đối tượng của động từ). 2. Classification: a. Object pronouns: (đại từ nhân xưng tân ngữ) First Person Second Person Third Person Singular form me you him, her, it Plural form us you them Eg. We met him yesterday. She made us a big cake. b. Nouns, or noun phrases: eg. She gave me a blank look. We sent endless letters to the manager. c. Gerunds: eg. The man loved telling funny stories. / She was interested in going shopping on Sundays. d. Verbs: eg. Jack wished to become an astronaut. Kelvin loves to do the crosswords. e. Clauses: eg. We know how we should solve the problem. She asked why we didn’t arrive on time. Notes: Có 2 loại bổ ngữ; bổ ngữ của chủ ngữ (Cs) – She was exhausted – và bổ ngữ của tân ngữ (Co) – The long walk made us exhausted.. IV.. ADVERBIALS (A):. 1. Definition: Element to be used to denote the stages, manner, methods, or to indicate time, places, purposes, or others. (được dùng để miêu tả trạng thái, cách thức, phương pháp, mức độ, hay dùng để chỉ thời gian, nơi chốn, mục đích,… của hành động). 2. Classification: a. Adverbs: eg. We often go to work by bus. She danced marvelously. b. Adverbials: eg. In the past, people used to live in a large family. c. Clauses: eg. When we came, they were fighting./ Billy tried hard in order that he could pass the exam.. V.. VERBS (V):. 1. Definition: To denote action, state, and be the most important part of sentences. 2. Classification: phân loại động từ 2.1. Auxiliary verbs: động từ trợ 2.1.1. Primary auxiliary verbs: be/ have/ do (These verbs can either be auxiliaries or lexical verbs) 2.1.2 Modal verbs: can/ could/ may/ might/ must/ have to + base form/ will/ would/ shall/ should/ be going to + base form/ used to + base form/ ought to + base form/ (These are sometimes functional verbs) 2.2. Lexical verbs: động từ mang nghĩa 2.2.1. Intensive verbs: verbs that show the state (She feels tired/ He is selfish).

(2) 2.2.2. Extensive verbs: verbs that show the affection (He gets angry/ They are helpful) 2.2.3. Intransitive verbs: verbs that can function as verb phrases and make sentences meaningful without any complementation. e.g. She cried (noisily). It rains/ is raining (hard/ heavily/ cats and dogs) 2.2.4. Transitive verbs: verbs that need complementation. a. Mono-transitive verbs: verbs that followed by one object (S+V+O). e.g. She bought flowers. Ann met her fiance’ yesterday. b. Di-transitive verbs: verbs that followed by both direct and indirect objects. (S+V+O+O) e.g. She bought me some sweets. (= She bought some sweets for me) They gave me a big cake. (=They gave a big cake to me) c. Complex transitive verbs: follow the form “S + V + O + Co” e.g. He made me angry. The female film star drove him mad. 3. Affixations: phụ tố để tạo động từ 3.1. en: added to nouns or adjectives (mean make, or lead to ) e.g. danger…….to endanger wide……....to widen rich………..to enrich courage……to encourage length……to lengthen broad ……..to broaden 3.2. ize/ ise: added to nouns or adjectives (mean make, or develop, or specify) e.g. modern……to modernize industrial….to industrialize minimum….to minimize maximum….to maximize capital……..to capitalize natural……..to naturalize 4. Sentence models: 4.1 S + V-intrans They laugh/ The wind is blowing. 4.2 S + V-monotrans + O He did his homework/ Harley carried an umbrella. 4.3 S + V-in/ extensive + Cs He became famous/ They are nearly exhausted. 4.4 S + V-intrans + A He went abroad/ She arrives late. 4.5 S + V-ditrans + O + O She buys me presents/ That brings my father success. 4.6 S + V-complex trans + O + C The story made me bored/ You drive me mad. 4.7 S + V-intrans + A + A/ others She went to school early/ He came to the park in the early morning. PRACTICE EXERCISE 6 - BÀI TẬP THỰC HÀNH 6 Choose one word or phrase marked A,B,C, or D that best complete the preceding sentence. 1. Whenever he has free time, he goes swimming. Swimming is his______ pastime . A. favor B. favorable C. favored D. favorite 2. Children______ eating sweets. A. want B. like C. need D. prefer 3. Young people hate______, they prefer making questions. A. ask B. asking C. be asked D. being asked 4. Your sister will be ill if she doesn’t stop ______ so much. A. to worry B. worry C. worried D. worrying 5. The word “fishing” in “Fishing is his favorite pastime” is a(n______. A. noun B. pronoun C. gerund D. adjective 6. He loves______ lies, that’s why we call him “a liar”. A .telling B. saying C. speaking D. talking 7. The word “stopped” in “He stopped smoking 5 years ago” can be replaced by______. A. took up B. came up C. picked up D. gave up 8. She’s thirsty. She’d like______ a cold drink. A. have B. having C. to have D. to having 9. She never gets up late. She’s used to______ up early. A. get B. getting C. gets D. got 10. One of those______ from Japan. A. students are B. student are C. students is D. student is 11. Among those, I like the red one______. A. more B. best C. better D. much 12. We’ve got very______ milk left. A. little B. a little C. few D. a few 13. He has been in hospital______ last Tuesday. A. for B. when C. from D. since 14. I don’t really like An, but this time I’d like ______ him..

(3) A. to meet B. meet C. met D. meeting 15. The science classes at this______ difficult. A. schools are B. school are C. school is D. schools is 16. Be quiet! I______ to listen to some important information. A. was trying B. am trying C. try D. tried 17. The teacher made us______ hard for the final examination. A. learn B. learning C. to learn D. learnt 18. Neither Bill nor Norris______ going to the play tonight. A. was B. were C. are D. is 19. He used ______ on time. But this time he is terribly late. A. arriving B. arrive C. to arrive D. to arriving 20. He found______ to live on his unemployment benefit. A. it B. its C. it’s D. it is 21. My hobby is watching the whole city from the______. A. sky-lift B. skywalk C. skydiver D. skydiving 22. Kangaroos are merely found in______. A. Asia B. America C. Australia D. Austria 23. Opera, Jazz and Pop are sorts of______. A. music B. musical C. musician D. musicology 24. There are many thieves in the town. Remember ______ the door before you go out. A. lock B. locking C. to lock D. locked 25. Jane has to live on her unemployment benefit. She is now______. A. out of work B. out of order C. out of date D. out of office 26. Mt Everest is ______ highest peak of ______ Himalayas. A. a/ the B. the/ a C. the/ nothing D. the/ the 27. Nothing in your room ______ since you were sent to the hospital. A. have been moved B. has been moved C. have moved D. has moved 28. Water plays a vital ______ in developing agriculture. A. part B. importance C. vision D. character 29. The weather in the South of Vietnam seems ______. than ______ in the North. A. more pleasant/ it B. more pleasant/ that C. pleasant/ the weather D. more pleasant/ those 30. It’s more ______ to use gas instead of electricity to warm up the house. A. economy B. economic C. economical D. economist 31. Ha Long is a place______ is good for sightseeing A. it B. which C. what D. its 32. It is his return______ made her happy A. which B. this C. that D. it 33. He is 59 years old. He______ next year. A. is going to retire B. retires C. retired D. has retired 34.A dictionary is a book______ explains words. A. what B. it C. its D. which 35. British Isles______ by speakers of Celtic language two thousand years ago. A. inhabited B. are inhabited C. were inhabited D. were inhabiting 36. He is from Tokyo. He speaks______ . A. Japan B. Tokyo C. Japanese D. Chinese 37. He wore dark glasses so that nobody could______ him. A. recognize B. recognition C. recognized D. recognizable 38. Modern English is different______ old English. A. of B. in C. from D. on 39. It is necessary to learn a foreign______ . A. tongue B. story C. country D. language 40. He arrived in Singapore ________ Monday evening. A. in B. from C. on D. at 41. Unless we hurry, we’ll ______ the bus. A. miss B. remember C. catch D. get in 42. I wish I ________ here longer, but it’s time for me to go home. A. stay B. can stay C. will stay D. could stay.

(4) 43. We are going to watch “The English language” program______ will be on at 8 p.m A. it B. what C. which 44. It’s the flood ______ sweeps away the house A. that B. this C. these 45. English______ by about 700 million people around the world. A. is been spoken B. is going to spoken C. is spoken 46. Would you mind ________ me your address? A. telling B. tell C. to tell 47. I won’t write ______ him after finishing this test. A. for B. to C. from 48. I like the work which is easy______. A. doing B. to do C. done 49. Chinese is the only language with more______ than English A. speakers B. persons C. pupils 50. They are interested in practicing______. A. France B. Spain C. English. D. they D. those D. will spoken D. told D. A or B D. for do D. many adults D. Russia.

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