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English in Canada, Australia, New Zealand Thuyết trình môn Đa dạng tiếng anh

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Đào Thị Thanh Kim


Mai Hà Xuân Ngân


Lữ Thị Trúc Mai


Phạm Quốc Nhiên


Trần Thanh Phúc

Table of contents

1. English in

2. English in

3. English in
New Zealand

1. English in


A shortlist of particularly salient features:
● The use of the tag eh – another well-known Canadian stereotype
● The occurrence of EngE-type lexical-distributional pronunciations
shone (with a short vowel), corollary, capillary with the stress on the first syllable

● The unique use of certain lexical items, often ‘recycled’ English words and French borrowings
For example

The distinction between prime minister (federal chief minister) and premier (provincial chief minister)

● -our vs -or

The british form is given as the first
alternative, that is it has been found
to be most commonly used, for

example colour (also color)
The headword entry for color is
followed by ‘var. of colour’

● -re vs -er

The British form is generally given
as the first alternative: centre,
theatre, meagre, metre, and -er
forms are, like -or ones, listed as
acceptable variants, without further
The headword entry calibre

● -ise (-yse) vs -ize (-yze)
The American form is always given as
the first alternative, with the exception
of advertise which has no acceptable
variant. -ise forms are given as variants
but usually labelled ‘esp. Brit’

As for phonetic
realisation, phonotactic
distribution and
phonemic systems, on the
other hand, CanE is in
almost total agreement
with GA.

A great number of Canadians,
especially in parts of the
Atlantic provinces, do not
produce this feature, but if
used, it constitutes a very
interesting linguistic variable
in the study of social variation
and change in CanE

Most Canadian accents have a
single merged vowel
phoneme for the sets
quality of the vowel is open,
back and variably – but never
more than lightly – rounded

An interesting sociolinguistic study (Clarke et al. 1995) shows that back vowels in CanE,
that is [u υ o ɑ], are undergoing a shift to the effect that they are fronted (in contrast with
the Northern Cities shift in the USA (

CanE prosody does not appear to be
distinctive in any way. As in some other
varieties, high rising terminals have
been widely used during the last 30


In CanE grammar, it tends to be more
morphological than syntax or relate to
discourse and the lexicon.


Some English structures still
By expertise, no specific grammar of
Canadian Standard English

Has the plumber been yet? rather than ... been here yet...
Have you got ...? rather than Do you have ...?

Morphological characteristics include certain forms in the strong verb
system, of which some have been subject to sociolinguistic studies
In the Dialect Topography project, an apparent-time study
demonstrates a rapid increase in the past tense forms dove and snuck,
as also found in AmE, instead of dived and sneaked. A stable British
form, on the other hand, is found in the past tense of shine, always
realised as /ʃɑn/ not US /ʃoun/.


The following exemplifies some lexical categories:
Extension of meaning is found in names for ‘similar-looking’ plants and types of vegetation:

crocus ‘a type of prairie
bush ‘the back country’ (cf. AusE),
and in a number of ‘revived’ words, as exemplified among the salient features.
Ice hockey (or hockey in CanE) terms represent Canadianisms which have been adopted
in General English

boarding, blue line, icing whereas others are true foreignisms (cf.

Borrowings from Indian languages include: pemmican (a meat dish), saskatoon
(a shrub with edible berries), thousands of place-names

Including the name of the nation, as already mentioned, and Toronto, whose
etymology is disputed but sometimes given as ‘meeting-place

2. English in


a. History

AusE began to diverge from British English soon after the foundation of
the Colony of New South Wales in 1788. The British convicts sent to
Australia were mostly people from large English cities, such as Cockneys
from London 
The first Australian gold rushes in the 1850s brought linguistic influences
from many parts of the world including English to Australia.
From the 1950s onwards, the US’s TV programs and other mass content
appeared a lot and impacted on AusE.

b. Social variation
 Varieties determined by
pronunciation of vowels and


Broad AusE


General AusE

Cultivated AusE

 Three main varieties of Australian
English: Broad AusE, General AusE,
Cultivated AusE.

c. Aboriginal languages

The most important and probably also best researched ethnic variety
of AusE is Aboriginal English
 Used both as a first and as a second language in Australia
 There are more than 250 Indigenous languages including 800
dialects. Each language is specific to a particular place and people.

A descriptive

a. Spelling

Australian English follows British spelling more closely than
American English
 AusE prefers words ending with ‘yse’ or ‘ise’ rather than ending
with ‘yze’ or ‘ize’.
E.g.: BrE and AusE: analyse, organise

AmE: analyze, organize

 Australian English uses ‘our’ and American English ‘or’
E.g.: BrE and AusE: colour, honour
AmE: color, honor

b. Phonology
 Vowels: can be separate by its length:
_ The long vowels, which include monophthongs
and diphthongs, mostly correspond to the tense vowels used in
analyses of Received Pronunciation (RP) as well as its
centering diphthongs

b. Phonology
 Most varieties of Australian English exhibit only a
partial trap – bath split: a vowel split in which the phoneme
/æ/, as pronounced in other varieties of English, is
pronounced in some words as /ɑː/.
E.g.: AmE: - bath /bæθ/
- grass /ɡræs/
AusE: - bath /bɑːθ/
- grass /ɡrɑːs/

 pronounced with the short /æ/

 pronounced with the long /aː/

b. Phonology
 Consonants:

• AusE is non-rhotic language  the /r/ sound does not appear at
the end of a syllable or before a consonant.
E.g.: word ‘card’
AmeE: /kɑːrd/
AusE: /kɑːd/
• Australians often drop the /l/ or the /h/ out words
E.g.: Australia: Austray’a
House: ‘ouse

c. Grammar
 In AmE, collective nouns nearly always take singular

verb forms. But in AusE, collective noun as a group of
individuals determines the choice of verb form.
E.g.: AmE: The team has won the match
AusE: The team have won the match

d. Lexicon
 AusE borrowed several words denoting animals, plants, etc.:

kangaroo, wallaby, koala, kookaburra, dingo, budgerigar,
coolabah, billabong
AusE has a lot of diminutives



d. Lexicon
 Australians also use to shorten terms or even sentences

E.g.: “Wanna cuppa?” means “Do you want a cup of tea?”
Deadset means “That’s true” or “True!”
 Aboriginal languages have had an impact on AusE word-

formation pattern known as reduplication
E.g.: “never-never” used for the desert regions in AusE