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The Stock Market

In the last chapter we identified the capital

they had returned to record highs before ­falling

­markets as the place where long-term securities

back to 1997 levels in 2009. Since then the mar-

trade. We then examined the bond market and

kets have fully recovered and reached record highs.

discussed how bond prices are established. In this

In this chapter we look at how this important mar-

chapter we continue our investigation of the capital

ket works.

markets by taking a close look at the stock market.

We begin by discussing the markets where

The market for stocks is undoubtedly the one that

stocks trade. We then examine the fundamental

receives the most attention and scrutiny. Great

theories that underlie the valuation of stocks. These

fortunes are made and lost as investors attempt to

theories are critical to an understanding of the

anticipate the market’s ups and downs. We have

forces that cause the value of stocks to rise and fall

witnessed an unprecedented period of volatility over

minute by minute and day by day. We will learn that

the last decade. Stock indexes hit record highs in

determining a value for a common stock is very dif-

the late 1990s, largely led by technology compa-

ficult and that it is this difficulty that leads to so

nies, and then fell precipitously in 2000. By 2007

much volatility in the stock markets.



Part 5  Financial Markets

Investing in Stocks
A share of stock in a firm represents ownership. A stockholder owns a percentage
interest in a firm, consistent with the percentage of outstanding stock held.
Investors can earn a return from stock in one of two ways. Either the price of
the stock rises over time or the firm pays the stockholder dividends. Frequently,
investors earn a return from both sources. Stock is riskier than bonds because stockholders have a lower priority than bondholders when the firm is in trouble, dividends are less assured, and stock price increases are not guaranteed. Despite these
risks, it is possible to make a great deal of money by investing in stock, whereas that
is very unlikely by investing in bonds. Another distinction between stock and bonds
is that stock does not mature.
Ownership of stock gives the stockholder certain rights regarding the firm. One
is the right of a residual claimant: Stockholders have a claim on all assets and
income left over after all other claimants have been satisfied. If nothing is left over,
they get nothing. As noted, however, it is possible to get rich as a stockholder if the
firm does well.
Most stockholders have the right to vote for directors and on certain issues, such
as amendments to the corporate charter and whether new shares should be issued.
Notice that the stock certificate shown in Figure 13.1 does not list a maturity
date, face value, or an interest rate, which were indicated on the bond shown in
Chapter 12.

Common Stock vs. Preferred Stock

There are two types of stock, common and preferred. A share of common stock in a
firm represents an ownership interest in that firm. Common stockholders vote,
receive dividends, and hope that the price of their stock will rise. There are various

Figure 13.1  Sapir Consolidated Airlines Stock

chapter 13  The Stock Market


classes of common stock, usually denoted type A, type B, and so on. Unfortunately,
the type does not have any meaning that is standard across all companies. The differences among the types usually involve either the distribution of dividends or
voting rights. It is important for an investor in stocks to know exactly what rights go
along with the shares of stock being contemplated.
Preferred stock is a form of equity from a legal and tax standpoint. However,
it differs from common stock in several important ways. First, because preferred
stockholders receive a fixed dividend that never changes, a share of preferred stock
is as much like a bond as it is like common stock. Second, because the dividend does
not change, the price of preferred stock is relatively stable. Third, preferred stockholders do not usually vote unless the firm has failed to pay the promised dividend.
Finally, preferred stockholders hold a claim on assets that has priority over the
claims of common shareholders but after that of creditors such as bondholders.
Less than 25% of new equity issues are preferred stock, and only about 5% of
all capital is raised using preferred stock. This may be because preferred dividends
are not tax-deductible to the firm like bond interest payments. Consequently, issuing preferred stock usually costs the firm more than issuing debt, even though it
shares many of the characteristics of a bond.

How Stocks Are Sold
Literally billions of shares of stock are sold each business day in the United States.
The orderly flow of information, stock ownership, and funds through the stock markets is a critical feature of well-developed and efficient markets. This efficiency

encourages investors to buy stocks and to provide equity capital to businesses with
valuable growth opportunities. We traditionally discuss stocks as trading on either
an organized exchange or over the counter. Recently, this distinction is blurring as
electronic trading grows in both volume and influence.

Find listed companies,
­member information, real-time
market indices, and current
stock quotes at


Organized Securities Exchanges  Historically, the New York Stock Exchange
(NYSE) has been the best known of the organized exchanges. The NYSE first began
trading in 1792, when 24 brokers began trading a few stocks on Wall Street. The
NYSE is still the world’s largest and most liquid equities exchange. The traditional
definition of an organized exchange is that there is a specified location where buyers
and sellers meet on a regular basis to trade securities using an open-outcry auction
model. As more sophisticated technology has been adapted to securities trading, this
model is becoming less frequently used. The NYSE currently advertises itself as a
hybrid market that combines aspects of electronic trading and traditional auctionmarket trading. In March of 2006, the NYSE merged with Archipelago, an electronic
communication network (ECN) firm. On April 4, 2007, the NYSE Euronext was
created by the combination of the NYSE Group and Euronext N.V. NYSE Euronext
completed acquisition of the American stock exchange in 2009.
There are also major organized stock exchanges around the world. The most
active exchange in the world is the Nikkei in Tokyo. Other major exchanges include
the London Stock Exchange in England, the DAX in Germany, and the Toronto
Stock Exchange in Canada.

To have a stock listed for trading on one of the organized exchanges, a firm
must file an application and meet certain criteria set by the exchange designed to
enhance trading. For example, the NYSE encourages only the largest firms to list so
that transaction volume will be high. There are several ways to meet the minimum


Part 5  Financial Markets

listing requirements. Generally, the firm must have substantial earnings and market
value (greater than $10 million per year and $100 million market value).
Over 8,000 companies around the world list their shares on the NYSE Euronext.
The average firm on the exchange has a market value of $19.6 billion. On October
28, 1998, the NYSE volume topped 1 billion shares for the first time.1 By 2013, daily
volume was usually in excess of 4 billion shares with 7 billion shares being traded on
peak days.
Regional exchanges, such as the Philadelphia, are even easier to list on. Some
firms choose to list on more than one exchange, believing that more exposure will
increase the demand for their stock and hence its price. Many firms also believe that
there is a certain amount of prestige in being listed on one of the major exchanges.
They may even include this fact in their advertising. There is little conclusive research
to support this belief, however. Microsoft, for example, is not listed on any organized
exchange, yet its stock had a total market value of over $250 billion in 2013.
Over-the-Counter Markets  If Microsoft’s stock is not traded on any of the organized stock exchanges, where does it sell its stock? Securities not listed on one of the
exchanges trade in the over-the-counter (OTC) market. This market is not organized
in the sense of having a building where trading takes place. Instead, trading occurs
over sophisticated telecommunications networks. One such network is called the
National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System
(NASDAQ). This system, introduced in 1971, provides current bid and ask prices

on about 3,000 actively traded securities. Dealers “make a market” in these stocks
by buying for inventory when investors want to sell and selling from inventory when
investors want to buy. These dealers provide small stocks with the liquidity that is
essential to their acceptance in the market. Total volume on the NASDAQ is usually
slightly lower than on the NYSE; however, NASDAQ volume has been growing and
occasionally exceeds NYSE volume.
Not all publicly traded stocks list on one of the organized exchanges or on NASDAQ.
Securities that trade very infrequently or trade primarily in one region of the country
are usually handled by the regional offices of various brokerage houses. These offices
often maintain small inventories of regionally popular securities. Dealers that make a
market for stocks that trade in low volume are very important to the success of the
over-the-counter market. Without these dealers standing ready to buy or sell shares,
investors would be reluctant to buy shares of stock in regional or unknown firms, and
it would be very difficult for start-up firms to raise needed capital. Recall from Chapter
4 that the more liquid an asset is, the greater the quantity demanded. By providing
liquidity intervention, dealers increase demand for thinly traded securities.
Organized vs. Over-the-Counter Trading  There is a significant difference
between how organized and OTC exchanges operate. Organized exchanges are characterized as auction markets that use floor traders who specialize in particular stocks.
These specialists oversee and facilitate trading in a group of stocks. Floor traders,
representing various brokerage firms with buy and sell orders, meet at the trading
post on the exchange and learn about current bid and ask prices. These quotes are
called out loud. In about 90% of trades, the specialist matches buyers with sellers.
In the other 10%, the specialists may intervene by taking ownership of the stock
themselves or by selling stock from inventory. It is the specialist’s duty to maintain
an orderly market in the stock even if that means buying stock in a declining market.

NYSE Fact Book, www.nyse.com.

chapter 13  The Stock Market


About one of four orders on the New York Stock Exchange is filled by floor traders personally approaching the specialist on the exchange. The other three-quarters
of trades are executed by the SuperDOT system (Super Designated Order
Turnaround system). The SuperDOT is an electronic order routing system that
transmits orders directly to the specialist who trades in a stock. This allows for
much faster communication of trades than is possible using floor traders. SuperDOT
is for trades under 100,000 shares and gives priority to trades of under 2,100 shares.
About 75% of orders to buy or sell on the NYSE are executed using this system.
Whereas organized exchanges have specialists who facilitate trading, over-thecounter markets have market makers. Rather than trade stocks in an auction format,
they trade on an electronic network where bid and ask prices are set by the market
makers. There are usually multiple market makers for any particular stock. They
each enter their bid and ask quotes. Once this is done, they are obligated to buy or
sell at least 1,000 securities at that price. Once a trade has been executed, they may
enter a new bid and ask quote. Market makers are important to the economy in that
they assure there is continuous liquidity for every stock, even those with little transaction volume. Market makers are compensated by the spread between the bid
price (the price they pay for stocks) and ask price (the price they sell the stocks
for). They also receive commissions on trades.
Although NASDAQ, the NYSE, and the other exchanges are heavily regulated,
they are still public for-profit businesses. They have shareholders, directors, and
officers who are interested in market share and generating profits. This means that
the NYSE is vigorously competing with NASDAQ for the high-volume stocks that
generate the big fees. For example, the NYSE has been trying to entice Microsoft to
leave the NASDAQ and list with them for many years.
Electronic Communications Networks (ECNs)­  ECNs have been challenging
both NASDAQ and the organized exchanges for business in recent years. An ECN
is an electronic network that brings together major brokerages and traders so that
they can trade among themselves and bypass the middleman. ECNs have a number

of advantages that have led to their rapid growth.
• Transparency: All unfilled orders are available for review by ECN traders.
This provides valuable information about supply and demand that traders can
use to set their strategy. Although some exchanges make this information
available, it is not always as current or complete as what the ECN provides.
• Cost reduction: Because the middleman and the commission are cut out of
the deal, transaction costs can be lower for trades executed over an ECN.
The spread is usually reduced and sometimes eliminated.
• Faster execution: Since ECNs are fully automated, trades are matched and
confirmed faster than can be done when there is human involvement. For
many traders this is not of great significance, but for those trying to trade
on small price fluctuations, this is critical.
• After-hours trading: Prior to the advent of ECNs only institutional traders had access to trading securities after the exchanges had closed for the
day. Many news reports and information become available after the major
exchanges have closed, and small investors were locked out of trading on
this data. Since ECNs never close, trading can continue around the clock.
Along with the advantages of ECNs there are disadvantages. The primary one is
that they work well only for stocks with substantial volume. Since ECNs require there
to be a seller to match against each buyer and vice versa, thinly traded stocks may


Part 5  Financial Markets

go long intervals without trading. One of the largest ECNs is Instinet. It is mainly for
institutional traders. Instinet also owns Island, which is for active individual trades.
The major exchanges are fighting the ECNs by expanding their own automatic
trading systems. For example, the NYSE recently announced changes to its own
Direct1 order routing system and merged with Archipelago to give it an established

place in this market. Although the NYSE still dominates the American stock market
in terms of share and dollar volume, its live auction format may not survive technological challenges for many more years.
Exchange Traded Funds  Exchange traded funds (ETFs) have become the latest
market innovation to capture investor interest. They were first introduced in 1990
and by 2010 nearly 1,000 separate ETFs were being traded. In their simplest form,
ETFs are formed when a basket of securities is purchased and a stock is created
based on this basket that is traded on an exchange. The makeup and structure are
continuing to evolve, but ETFs share the following features:
1.They are listed and traded as individual stocks on a stock exchange.
2.They are indexed rather than actively managed.
3.Their value is based on the underlying net asset value of the stocks held in
the index basket. The exact content of the basket is public so that intraday
arbitrage keeps the ETF price close to the implied value.
In many ways ETFs resemble stock index mutual funds in that they track the
performance of some index, such as the S&P 500 or the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
They differ in that ETFs trade like stocks, so they allow for limit orders, short sales,
stop-loss orders, and the ability to buy on margin. ETFs tend to have lower management fees than do comparable index mutual funds. For example, the Vanguard
extended market ETF reports an expense ratio of .08% compared to an expense ratio
of .25% for its extended market index mutual fund. Another advantage of ETFs is
that they usually have no minimum investment amount, whereas mutual funds often
require $3,000–$5,000 minimums.
The primary disadvantage of ETFs is that since they trade like stocks, investors
have to pay a broker commission each time they buy or sale shares. This provides a
cost disadvantage compared to mutual funds for those who want to frequently invest
small amounts, such as through a 401K.
ETFs feature some of the more exotic names found in finance, including Vipers,
Diamonds, Spiders, and Qubes. These names are derived from the index that is
tracked or the name of the issuing firm. For example, Diamonds are indexed to the
Dow Jones Industrial Average, Spiders track the S&P 500, and Qubes follow the
NASDAQ (ticker symbol QQQQ). Vipers are Vanguard’s ETFs. The list of available

indexes that can be tracked by purchasing ETFs is rapidly expanding to include
virtually every sector, commodity, and investment style (value, growth, capitalization, etc.). Their popularity is likely to increase as more investors learn about how
they can be effectively used as a low-cost way to help diversify a portfolio.

Computing the Price of Common Stock
One basic principle of finance is that the value of any investment is found by computing the value today of all cash flows the investment will generate over its life. For
example, a commercial building will sell for a price that reflects the net cash flows
(rents – expenses) it is projected to have over its useful life. Similarly, we value

chapter 13  The Stock Market


common stock as the value in today’s dollars of all future cash flows. The cash flows
a stockholder may earn from stock are dividends, the sales price, or both.
To develop the theory of stock valuation, we begin with the simplest possible
scenario. This assumes that you buy the stock, hold it for one period to get a dividend, then sell the stock. We call this the one-period valuation model.

The One-Period Valuation Model
Access http://stockcharts

.com/freecharts/historical for
detailed stock quotes, charts,
and historical stock data.

Suppose that you have some extra money to invest for one year. After a year you
will need to sell your investment to pay tuition. After watching Wall Street Week on

TV you decide that you want to buy Intel Corp. stock. You call your broker and find
that Intel is currently selling for $50 per share and pays $0.16 per year in dividends.
The analyst on Wall Street Week predicts that the stock will be selling for $60 in one
year. Should you buy this stock?
To answer this question you need to determine whether the current price accurately reflects the analyst’s forecast. To value the stock today, you need to find the
present discounted value of the expected cash flows (future payments) using the
formula in Equation 1 of Chapter 3 in which the discount factor used to discount the
cash flows is the required return on investments in equity. The cash flows consist of
one dividend payment plus a final sales price, which, when discounted back to the
present, leads to the following equation that computes the current price of the

P0 =


(1 + ke) (1 + ke)

P0 5 the current price of the stock. The zero subscript refers to time
period zero, or the present.
Div1 5 the dividend paid at the end of year 1.
ke 5 the required return on investments in equity.
P1 5 the price at the end of the first period. This is the assumed sales
price of the stock.


Stock Valuation:

Find the value of the Intel stock given the figures reported above. You will need to know
the required return on equity to find the present value of the cash flows. Since a stock
is more risky than a bond, you will require a higher return than that offered in the bond
market. Assume that after careful consideration you decide that you would be satisfied
to earn 12% on the investment.

Putting the numbers into Equation 1 yields the following:

P0 =

= $.14 + $53.57 = $53.71
1 + 0.12 1 + 0.12

Based on your analysis, you find that the stock is worth $53.71. Since the stock is currently available for $50 per share, you would choose to buy it. Why is the stock selling
for less than $53.71? It may be because other investors place a different risk on the
cash flows or estimate the cash flows to be less than you do.


Part 5  Financial Markets

The Generalized Dividend Valuation Model
The one-period dividend valuation model can be extended to any number of periods. The concept remains the same. The value of stock is the present value of all
future cash flows. The only cash flows that an investor will receive are dividends and
a final sales price when the stock is ultimately sold. The generalized formula for
stock can be written as in Equation 2.

P0 =




(1 + ke)


(1 + ke)

+ g +

n +

(1 + ke)
(1 + ke)n

If you were to attempt to use Equation 2 to find the value of a share of stock,
you would soon realize that you must first estimate the value the stock will have at
some point in the future before you can estimate its value today. In other words, you
must find Pn in order to find P0. However, if Pn is far in the future, it will not affect
P0. For example, the present value of a share of stock that sells for $50 seventy-five
years from now using a 12% discount rate is just one cent [$50>(1.1275) = $0.01].
This means that the current value of a share of stock can be found as simply the
present value of the future dividend stream. The generalized dividend model is
rewritten in Equation 3 without the final sales price.

P0 = a
t = 1 (1 + ke)

Consider the implications of Equation 3 for a moment. The generalized dividend
model says that the price of stock is determined only by the present value of the
dividends and that nothing else matters. Many stocks do not pay dividends, so how
is it that these stocks have value? Buyers of the stock expect that the firm will pay
dividends someday. Most of the time a firm institutes dividends as soon as it has
completed the rapid growth phase of its life cycle. The stock price increases as the
time approaches for the dividend stream to begin.
The generalized dividend valuation model requires that we compute the present
value of an infinite stream of dividends, a process that could be difficult, to say the
least. Therefore, simplified models have been developed to make the calculations

easier. One such model is the Gordon growth model, which assumes constant
dividend growth.

The Gordon Growth Model
Many firms strive to increase their dividends at a constant rate each year. Equation 4
rewrites Equation 3 to reflect this constant growth in dividends.

P0 =

D0 * (1 + g)1

(1 + ke)


D0 * (1 + g)2

(1 + ke)

+ g +

D0 * (1 + g) ∞
(1 + ke) ∞

D0 5 the most recent dividend paid.

g 5 the expected constant growth rate in dividends.

ke 5 the required return on an investment in equity.

chapter 13  The Stock Market


Equation 4 has been simplified using algebra to obtain Equation 5.2

P0 =

D0 * (1 + g)
(ke - g)
(ke - g)

This model is useful for finding the value of stock, given a few assumptions:
1.Dividends are assumed to continue growing at a constant rate forever.
Actually, as long as they are expected to grow at a constant rate for an
extended period of time (even if not forever), the model should yield reasonable results. This is because errors about distant cash flows become small
when discounted to the present.
2.The growth rate is assumed to be less than the required return on equity,
ke. Myron Gordon, in his development of the model, demonstrated that this
is a reasonable assumption. In theory, if the growth rate were faster than the
rate demanded by holders of the firm’s equity, in the long run the firm would

grow impossibly large.


Stock Valuation:
Gordon Growth

Find the current market price of Coca-Cola stock assuming dividends grow at a constant
rate of 10.95%, D 0 = $1.00, and the required return is 13%.

P0 =

D0 * (1 + g)
ke - g

P0 =

$1.00 * (1.1095)
.13 - .1095

P0 =

= $54.12

Coca-Cola stock should sell for $54.12 if the assumptions regarding the constant growth
rate and required return are correct.

To generate Equation 5 from Equation 4, first multiply both sides of Equation 4 by (1 + ke)>(1 + g)
and subtract Equation 4 from the result. This yields


P0 * (1 + ke)
(1 + g)

- P 0 = D0 -

D0 * (1 + g) ∞
(1 + ke) ∞

Assuming that ke is greater than g, the term on the far right will approach zero and can be dropped.
Thus, after factoring P0 out of the left side,

Next, simplify by combining terms to

P0 * c

P0 *
P0 =

1 + ke
1 + g

- 1 d = D0

(1 + ke) - (1 + g)

(1 + g)
D0 * (1 + g)
ke - g


= D0

ke - g


Part 5  Financial Markets

Price Earnings Valuation Method
Theoretically, the best method of stock valuation is the dividend valuation approach.
Sometimes, however, it is difficult to apply. If a firm is not paying dividends or has
a very erratic growth rate, the results may not be satisfactory. Other approaches to
stock valuation are sometimes applied. Among the more popular is the price/earnings multiple.
The price earnings ratio (PE) is a widely watched measure of how much the
market is willing to pay for $1 of earnings from a firm. A high PE has two interpretations.
1.A higher-than-average PE may mean that the market expects earnings to rise
in the future. This would return the PE to a more normal level.
2.A high PE may alternatively indicate that the market feels the firm’s
earnings are very low risk and is therefore willing to pay a premium for
The PE ratio can be used to estimate the value of a firm’s stock. Note that algebraically the product of the PE ratio times expected earnings is the firm’s stock

* E = P(6)

Firms in the same industry are expected to have similar PE ratios in the long
run. The value of a firm’s stock can be found by multiplying the average industry PE
times the expected earnings per share.


Stock Valuation:
PE Ratio

The average industry PE ratio for restaurants similar to Applebee’s, a pub restaurant
chain, is 23. What is the current price of Applebee’s if earnings per share are projected
to be $1.13?

Using Equation 6 and the data given we find:

P0 = P>E * E
P0 = 23 * $1.13 = $26
The PE ratio approach is especially useful for valuing privately held firms and firms
that do not pay dividends. The weakness of the PE approach to valuation is that by
using an industry average PE ratio, firm-specific factors that might contribute to a
long-term PE ratio above or below the average are ignored in the analysis. A skilled
analyst will adjust the PE ratio up or down to reflect unique characteristics of a firm

when estimating its stock price.

chapter 13  The Stock Market


How the Market Sets Security Prices
Suppose you go to an auto auction. The cars are available for inspection before the
auction begins, and you find a little Mazda Miata that you like. You test-drive it in
the parking lot and notice that it makes a few strange noises, but you decide that
you would still like the car. You decide $5,000 would be a fair price that would allow
you to pay some repair bills should the noises turn out to be serious. You see that
the auction is ready to begin, so you go in and wait for the Miata to enter.
Suppose there is another buyer who also spots the Miata. He test-drives the car
and recognizes that the noises are simply the result of worn brake pads that he can
fix himself at a nominal cost. He decides that the car is worth $7,000. He also goes
in and waits for the Miata to enter.
Who will buy the car and for how much? Suppose only the two of you are interested in the Miata. You begin the bidding at $4,000. He ups your bid to $4,500. You
bid your top price of $5,000. He counters with $5,100. The price is now higher than
you are willing to pay, so you stop bidding. The car is sold to the more informed
buyer for $5,100.
This simple example raises a number of points. First, the price is set by the
buyer willing to pay the highest price. The price is not necessarily the highest price
the asset could fetch, but it is incrementally greater than what any other buyer is
willing to pay.
Second, the market price will be set by the buyer who can take best advantage
of the asset. The buyer who purchased the car knew that he could fix the noise easily and cheaply. Because of this, he was willing to pay more for the car than you
were. The same concept holds for other assets. For example, a piece of property or
a building will sell to the buyer who can put the asset to the most productive use.

Consider why one company often pays a substantial premium over current market
prices to acquire ownership of another (target) company. The acquiring firm may
believe that it can put the target firm’s assets to work better than they are currently
and that this justifies the premium price.
Finally, the example shows the role played by information in asset pricing.
Superior information about an asset can increase its value by reducing its risk. When
you consider buying a stock, there are many unknowns about the future cash flows.
The buyer who has the best information about these cash flows will discount them
at a lower interest rate than will a buyer who is very uncertain.
Now let us apply these ideas to stock valuation. Suppose that you are considering the purchase of stock expected to pay dividends of $2 next year
(D1 5 $2). The firm is expected to grow at 3% indefinitely. You are quite uncertain about both the constancy of the dividend stream and the accuracy of the
estimated growth rate. To compensate yourself for this risk, you require a return
of 15%.
Now suppose Jennifer, another investor, has spoken with industry insiders and
feels more confident about the projected cash flows. Jennifer only requires a 12%
return because her perceived risk is lower than yours. Bud, on the other hand, is
dating the CEO of the company. He knows with near certainty what the future of
the firm actually is. He thinks that both the estimated growth rate and the estimated
cash flows are lower than what they will actually be in the future. Because he sees
almost no risk in this investment, he only requires a 7% return.


Part 5  Financial Markets

What are the values each investor will give to the stock? Applying the Gordon
growth model yields the following stock prices.

Discount Rate

Stock Price










You are willing to pay $16.67 for the stock. Jennifer would pay up to $22.22,
and Bud would pay $50. The investor with the lowest perceived risk is willing to
pay the most for the stock. If there were no other traders, the market price
would be just above $22.22. If you already held the stock, you would sell it
to Bud.
The point of this section is that the players in the market, bidding against each
other, establish the market price. When new information is released about a firm,
expectations change, and with them, prices change. New information can cause

changes in expectations about the level of future dividends or the risk of those
dividends. Since market participants are constantly receiving new information and
constantly revising their expectations, it is reasonable that stock prices are constantly changing as well.

Errors in Valuation
In this chapter we learned about several asset valuation models. An interesting
exercise is to apply these models to real firms. Students who do this find that computed stock prices do not match market prices much of the time. Students often
question whether the models are wrong or incomplete or whether they are simply
being used incorrectly. There are many opportunities for errors in applying the
models. These include problems estimating growth, estimating risk, and forecasting dividends.

Problems with Estimating Growth
The constant growth model requires the analyst to estimate the constant rate of
growth the firm will experience. You may estimate future growth by computing the
historical growth rate in dividends, sales, or net profits. This approach fails to consider any changes in the firm or economy that may affect the growth rate. Robert
Haugen, a professor of finance at the University of California, writes in his book,
The New Finance, that competition will prevent high-growth firms from being able
to maintain their historical growth rate. He demonstrates that, despite this, the
stock prices of historically high-growth firms tend to reflect a continuation of the
high growth rate. The result is that investors in these firms receive lower returns
than they would by investing in mature firms. This just points out that even the
experts have trouble estimating future growth rates. Table 13.1 shows the stock
price for a firm with a 15% required return, a $2 dividend, and a range of different
growth rates. The stock price varies from $14.43 at 1% growth to $228 at 14%
growth rate. Estimating growth at 13% instead of 12% results in a $38.33 price

chapter 13  The Stock Market


Table 13.1  S
 tock Prices for a Security with D0 5 $2.00, ke 5 15%, and
­Constant Growth Rates as Listed
Growth (%)

Price ($)

















Problems with Estimating Risk
The dividend valuation model requires the analyst to estimate the required return
for the firm’s equity. Table 13.2 shows how the price of a share of stock offering a
$2 dividend and a 5% growth rate changes with different estimates of the required
return. Clearly, stock price is highly dependent on the required return, despite our
uncertainty regarding how it is found.

Problems with Forecasting Dividends
Even if we are able to accurately estimate a firm’s growth rate and its required
return, we are still faced with the problem of determining how much of the firm’s
earnings will be paid as dividends. Clearly, many factors can influence the dividend
payout ratio. These will include the firm’s future growth opportunities and management’s concern over future cash flows.
Putting all of these concerns together, we see that stock analysts are seldom
very certain that their stock price projections are accurate. This is why stock prices
fluctuate so widely on news reports. For example, information that the economy
is slowing can cause analysts to revise their growth expectations. When this h
­ appens
across a broad spectrum of stocks, major market indexes can change.

Table 13.2  S
 tock Prices for a Security with D 0 5 $2.00, g 5 5%, and
­Required Returns as Listed
Required Return (%)

Price ($)














Part 5  Financial Markets

Does all this mean that you should not invest in the market? No, it only means
that short-term fluctuations in stock prices are expected and natural. Over the long
term, the stock price will adjust to reflect the true earnings of the firm. If high-quality
firms are chosen for your portfolio, they should provide fair returns over time.


The 2007–2009 Financial Crisis and the Stock Market
The subprime financial crisis that started in August 2007 led to one of the worst bear
markets in the last 50 years. Our analysis of stock price valuation, again using the
Gordon growth model, can help us understand how this event affected stock prices.
The subprime financial crisis had a major negative impact on the economy leading to a downward revision of the growth prospects for U.S. companies, thus lowering the dividend growth rate ( g) in the Gordon model. The resulting increase in
the denominator in Equation 5 would lead to a decline in P0 and hence a decline in
stock prices.
Increased uncertainty for the U.S. economy and the widening credit spreads
resulting from the subprime crisis would also raise the required return on investment
in equity. A higher ke also leads to an increase in the denominator in Equation 5, a
decline in P0, and a general fall in stock prices.
In the early stages of the financial crisis, the decline in growth prospects and
credit spreads were moderate and so, as the Gordon model predicts, the stock market decline was also moderate. However, when the crisis entered a particularly virulent stage, credit spreads shot through the roof, the economy tanked, and as the
Gordon model predicts, the stock market crashed. Between January 6, 2009, and
March 6, 2009, the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell from 9,015 to 6,547. Between
October 2007 (high of 14,066) and March 2009, the market lost 53% of its value.
Within a year the index was back over 10,000.


The September 11 Terrorist Attack, the Enron Scandal,
and the Stock Market
In 2001 two big shocks hit the stock market: the September 11 terrorist attack
and the Enron scandal. Our analysis of stock price evaluation, again using the
Gordon growth model, can help us understand how these events affected stock
The September 11 terrorist attack raised the possibility that terrorism against
the United States would paralyze the country. These fears led to a downward revision
of the growth prospects for U.S. companies, thus lowering the dividend growth rate
g in the Gordon model. The resulting rise in the denominator in Equation 5 should
lead to a decline in P0 and hence a decline in stock prices.
Increased uncertainty for the U.S. economy would also raise the required
return on investment in equity. A higher ke also leads to a rise in the denominator in
Equation 5, a decline in P0, and a general fall in stock prices. As the Gordon model
predicts, the stock market fell by over 10% immediately after September 11.

chapter 13  The Stock Market


Subsequently, the U.S. successes against the Taliban in Afghanistan and
the absence of further terrorist attacks reduced market fears and uncertainty,
causing g to recover and k e to fall. The denominator in Equation 5 then fell,
leading to a recovery in P 0 and the stock market in October and November.
However, by the beginning of 2002, the Enron scandal and disclosures that
many companies had overstated their earnings caused many investors to doubt

the formerly rosy forecast of earnings and dividend growth for corporations.
The resulting revision of g downward, and the rise in k e because of increased
uncertainty about the quality of accounting information, should have led to a
rise in the denominator in the Gordon Equation 5, thereby lowering P 0 for many
companies and hence the overall stock market. As predicted by our analysis,
this is exactly what happened. The stock market recovery was aborted and it
entered a downward slide.

Stock Market Indexes


A stock market index is used to monitor the behavior of a group of stocks. By
reviewing the average behavior of a group of stocks, investors are able to gain
some insight as to how a broad group of stocks may have performed. Various
stock market indexes are reported to give investors an indication of the performance of different groups of stocks. The most commonly quoted index is the Dow
Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), an index based on the performance of the stocks
of 30 large companies. The following Mini-Case box provides more background
on  this famous index. Table 13.3 lists the 30 stocks that made up the index in
June 2013.

History of the Dow Jones Industrial Average
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) is an index
composed of 30 “blue chip” industrial firms. On May
26, 1896, Charles H. Dow added up the prices of 12
of the best-known stocks and created an average by
dividing by the number of stocks. In 1916 eight more
stocks were added, and in 1928 the 30-stock average
made its debut.
Today the editors of the Wall Street Journal select

the firms that make up the DJIA. They take a broad
view of the type of firm that is considered “industrial”:
In essence, it is almost any company that is not in the
transportation or utility business (because there are
also Dow Jones averages for those kinds of stocks). In
choosing a new company for DJIA, they look among sub-

stantial industrial companies with a history of successful
growth and wide interest among investors. The components of the DJIA are changed periodically. For example,
in 2009 General Motors and Citigroup were replaced
with The Travelers Companies and Cisco Systems. In
2012 United Health Group replaced Kraft Foods.
Most market watchers agree that the DJIA is not
the best indicator of the market’s overall day-to-day
performance. Indeed, it varies substantially from
broader-based stock indexes in the short run. It continues to be followed so closely primarily because it
is the oldest index and was the first to be quoted by
other publications. But it tracks the performance of
the market reasonably well over the long run.


Part 5  Financial Markets

Table 13.3  T
 he Thirty Companies That Make Up the Dow Jones
Industrial Average
3M Co.

Access a wealth of information
about the current DJIA and its
history at


Stock Symbol

American Express Co.




Boeing Co.


Caterpillar Inc.




Cisco Systems


Coca-Cola Co.


E.I. DuPont de Nemours


Exxon Mobil Corp.


General Electric Co.


Goldman Sachs


Home Depot Inc.


Intel Corp.


International Business Machines Corp.


Johnson & Johnson


J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.


McDonald’s Corp.


Merck & Co. Inc.


Microsoft Corp.




Pfizer Inc.


Procter & Gamble Co.


Travelers Corp.


United Health Group


United Technologies Corp.


Verizon Communications Inc.




Walmart Stores Inc.


Walt Disney Co.


Other indexes, such as Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, the NASDAQ composite,
and the NYSE composite, may be more useful for following the performance of different groups of stocks. Figure 13.2 shows the DJIA since 1980.

chapter 13  The Stock Market

















































90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

Figure 13.2  Dow Jones Industrial Averages, 1980–2013
Source: />


Part 5  Financial Markets

Buying Foreign Stocks
In Chapter 4 we learned that diversification of a portfolio reduces risk. In recent
years, investors have come to realize that some risk can also be eliminated by diversifying across different countries. When one country is suffering from a recession,
others may be booming. If inflationary concerns in the United States cause stock
prices to drop, falling inflation in Japan may cause Japanese stocks to rise.
The problem with buying foreign stocks is that most foreign companies are not
listed on any of the U.S. stock exchanges, so the purchase of shares is difficult.
Intermediaries have found a way to solve this problem by selling American depository receipts (ADRs). A U.S. bank buys the shares of a foreign company and places
them in its vault. The bank then issues receipts against these shares, and these
receipts can be traded domestically, usually on the NASDAQ. Trade in ADRs is conducted entirely in U.S. dollars, and the bank converts stock dividends into U.S. currency. One advantage of the ADR is that it allows foreign firms to trade in the United
States without the firms having to meet the disclosure rules required by the SEC.
Foreign stock trading has been growing rapidly. Since 1979 cross-border trade
in equities has grown at a rate of 28% a year and now exceeds $2 trillion annually.
Interest is particularly keen in the stocks of firms in emerging economies such as
Mexico, Brazil, and South Korea.
As the worldwide recession of 2008 demonstrated, while volatility peculiar to
one country can be reduced by diversification, the degree of economic interconnectivity among nations means that some risk always remains.

Regulation of the Stock Market
Properly functioning capital markets are a hallmark of an economically advanced
economy. For an economy to flourish, firms must be able to raise funds to take
advantage of growth opportunities as they become available. Firms raise funds in
the capital markets, and for these to function properly investors must be able to
trust the information that is released about the firms that are using them. Markets
can collapse in the absence of this trust. The most notable example of this in the
United States was the Great Depression. During the 1920s, about $50 billion in new
securities were offered for sale. By 1932, half had become worthless. The public’s

confidence in the capital markets justifiably plummeted, and lawmakers agreed that
for the economy to recover, public faith had to be restored. Following a series of
investigative hearings, Congress passed the Securities Act of 1933, and shortly after
the Securities Act of 1934. The main purpose of these laws was to (1) require firms
to tell the public the truth about their businesses and (2) require brokers, dealers,
and exchanges to treat investors fairly. Congress established the Securities and
Exchange Commission (SEC) to enforce these laws.

The Securities and Exchange Commission
The SEC Web site states the following:
The primary mission of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission is to
protect investors and maintain the integrity of the securities markets.3

Source: www.sec.gov/about/whatwedo.shtml.

chapter 13  The Stock Market


It accomplishes this daunting task primarily by assuring a constant, timely, and
accurate flow of information to investors, who can then judge for themselves if a
company’s securities are a good investment. Thus, the SEC is primarily focused on
promoting disclosure of information and reducing asymmetric information rather
than determining the strength or well-being of any particular firm. The SEC brings
400 to 500 civil enforcement actions against individuals and companies each year in
its effort to maintain the quality of the information provided to investors.
The SEC is organized around four divisions and 18 offices and employs about
3,100 people. One way to understand how it accomplishes its goals is to review the

duties assigned to each division.
• The Division of Corporate Finance is responsible for collecting the many documents that public companies are required to file. These include annual reports,
registration statements, quarterly filings, and many others. The division reviews
these filings to check for compliance with the regulations. It does not verify the
truth or accuracy of filings. The division staff also provides companies with help
interpreting the regulations and recommends new rules for adoption.
• The Division of Market Regulation establishes and maintains standards for an
orderly and efficient market by regulating the major securities market participants. This is the division that reviews and approves new rules and changes
to existing rules.
• The Division of Investment Management oversees and regulates the investment
management industry. This includes oversight of the mutual fund industry. Just
as the Division of Market Regulation establishes rules governing the markets,
the Division of Investment Management establishes rules governing investment
• The Division of Enforcement investigates the violation of any of the rules and
regulations established by the other divisions. The Division of Enforcement
conducts its own investigations into various types of securities fraud and acts
on tips provided by the SEC’s other divisions. The SEC itself can only bring
civil lawsuits; however, it works closely with various criminal authorities to
bring criminal cases when appropriate.
Later, in Chapter 20 we discuss specific instances where the SEC has addressed
fraud and violations of ethical standards.

S umm a r y
There are both organized and over-the-counter
exchanges. Organized exchanges are distinguished
by a physical building where trading takes place.
The over-the-counter market operates primarily
over phone lines and computer links. Typically,

larger firms trade on organized exchanges and
smaller firms trade in the over-the-counter market,
though there are many exceptions to this rule. In
recent years, ECNs have begun to capture a significant portion of business traditionally belonging to
the stock exchanges. These electronic networks are

likely to become increasingly significant players in
the future.

Stocks are valued as the present value of the dividends. Unfortunately, we do not know precisely
what these dividends will be. This introduces a great
deal of error to the valuation process. The Gordon
growth model is a simplified method of computing
stock value that depends on the assumption that
the dividends are growing at a constant rate forever.
Given our uncertainty regarding future dividends,
this assumption is often the best we can do.


Part 5  Financial Markets

An alternative method for estimating a stock price is to
multiply the firm’s earnings per share times the industry price earnings ratio. This ratio can be adjusted up
or down to reflect specific characteristics of the firm.


The interaction among traders in the market is what
actually sets prices on a day-to-day basis. The trader
that values the security the most, either because of
less uncertainty about the cash flows or because of

greater estimated cash flows, will be willing to pay the
most. As new information is released, investors will
revise their estimates of the true value of the security
and will either buy or sell it depending upon how the
market price compares to their estimated valuation.
Because small changes in estimated growth rates or
required return result in large changes in price, it is
not surprising that the markets are often volatile.

K e y T e r ms
American depository receipts
(ADRs), p. 314
ask price, p. 301
bid price, p. 301

common stockholder, p. 298
generalized dividend model, p. 304
Gordon growth model, p. 304

NASDAQ, p. 300
preferred stock, p. 299
price earnings ratio (PE), p. 306

Q u e s t io n s

What basic principle of finance can be applied to the
valuation of any investment asset?

What is the National Association of Securities Dealers
Automated Quotation System (NASDAQ)?

Identify the cash flows available to an investor in
stock. How reliably can these cash flows be estimated? Compare the problem of estimating stock
cash flows to estimating bond cash flows. Which
security would you predict to be more volatile?

What distinguishes stocks from bonds?

Discuss the features that differentiate organized
exchanges from the over-the-counter market.

Review the list of firms now included in the Dow
Jones Industrial Average listed in Table 13.3.
How many firms appear to be technology related?
Discuss what this means in terms of the risk of the

Q u a n t i t a t i v e P r ob l e ms
eBay, Inc., went public in September of 1998. The following
information on shares outstanding was listed in the final

prospectus filed with the SEC.4
In the IPO, eBay issued 3,500,000 new shares. The initial price to the public was $18.00 per share. The final firstday closing price was $44.88.
If the investment bankers retained $1.26 per share
as fees, what were the net proceeds to eBay? What
was the market capitalization of the new shares of
Two common statistics in IPOs are underpricing
and money left on the table. Underpricing is defined
as percentage change between the offering price and
the first day closing price. Money left on the table
is the difference between the first day closing price
and the offering price, multiplied by the number of
shares offered. Calculate the underpricing and money

This information is summarized from />Archives/edgar/data/1065088/0001012870-98-002475.txt.

left on the table for eBay. What does this suggest
about the efficiency of the IPO process?
The shares of Misheak, Inc., are expected to generate
the following possible returns over the next 12 months:
Return (%)












If the stock is currently trading at $25 per share, what
is the expected price in one year? Assume that the
stock pays no dividends.
Suppose SoftPeople, Inc., is selling at $19.00 and currently pays an annual dividend of $0.65 per share.
Analysts project that the stock will be priced around
$23.00 in one year. What is the expected return?

chapter 13  The Stock Market


Suppose Microsoft, Inc., is trading at $27.29 per share.
It pays an annual dividend of $0.32 per share, and analysts have set a one-year target price around $33.30
per share. What is the expected return of this stock?
LaserAce is selling at $22.00 per share. The most
recent annual dividend paid was $0.80. Using the
Gordon growth model, if the market requires a return
of 11%, what is the expected dividend growth rate for
Huskie Motors just paid an annual dividend of $1.00
per share. Management has promised shareholders
to increase dividends at a constant rate of 5%. If the
required return is 12%, what is the current price per
Suppose Microsoft, Inc., is trading at $27.29 per
share. It pays an annual dividend of $0.32 per share,
which is double last year’s dividend of $0.16 per
share. If this trend is expected to continue, what is
the required return on Microsoft?
Gordon & Co.’s stock has just paid its annual dividend
of $1.10 per share. Analysts believe that Gordon will
maintain its historic dividend growth rate of 3%. If
the required return is 8%, what is the expected price
of the stock next year?
10.Macro Systems just paid an annual dividend of $0.32
per share. Its dividend is expected to double for the
next four years (D1 through D4), after which it will

grow at a more modest pace of 1% per year. If the
required return is 13%, what is the current price?
11.Nat-T-Cat Industries just went public. As a growing
firm, it is not expected to pay a dividend for the first
five years. After that, investors expect Nat-T-Cat to
pay an annual dividend of $1.00 per share (i.e., D6 5
1.00), with no growth. If the required return is 10%,
what is the current stock price?
12.Analysts are projecting that CB Railways will have
earnings per share of $3.90. If the average industry


PE ratio is about 25, what is the current price of CB
13.Suppose Microsoft, Inc., reports earnings per share
of around $0.75. If Microsoft is in an industry with a
PE ratio ranging from 30 to 40, what is a reasonable
price range for Microsoft?
14.Consider the following security information for four
securities making up an index:


Time 5 0

Time 5 1


















What is the change in the value of the index from
Time 5 0 to Time 5 1 if the index is calculated using
a value-weighted arithmetic mean?
15.An index had an average (geometric) mean return
over 20 years of 3.8861%. If the beginning index
value was 100, what was the final index value after
20 years?
16.Compute the price of a share of stock that pays a $1
per year dividend and that you expect to be able to
sell in one year for $20, assuming you require a 15%
17.The projected earnings per share for Risky Ventures,
Inc., is $3.50. The average PE ratio for the industry
composed of Risky Ventures’ closest competitors
is 21. After careful analysis, you decide that Risky
Ventures is a little more risky than average, so you
decide a PE ratio of 23 better reflects the market’s
perception of the firm. Estimate the current price of
the firm’s stock.

W e b E x e r cis e s
The Stock Market
1.Visit />Click “Stock Index Data” at the very top of the
page, and then click “U.S. Stock Indices–monthly.”

Review the indexes for the DJIA, the S&P 500, and
the NASDAQ composite. Which index appears most
­v olatile? In which index would you have rather
invested in 1985 if the investment had been allowed
to compound until now?
2. There are a number of indexes that track the performance of the stock market. It is interesting to review
how well they track along with each other. Go to

. Click the “Charts” tab at the
top of the screen. Alternatively, choose to display the
DJIA, S&P 500, NASDAQ, and Russell 2000. Set the
time frame to five years. Click “Get Chart.”
a.Which index has been most volatile over the last
five years?
b.Which index has posted the greatest gains over the
last five years?
c. Now adjust the time frame to intraday. Which
index has performed the best today? Which has
been most volatile?




The Mortgage Markets


Part of the classic American dream is to own one’s

long-term collateralized loans. From one perspec-

own home. With the price of the average house now

tive, the mortgage markets form a subcategory of the

over $208,000, few of us could hope to do this until

capital markets because mortgages involve long-term

late in life if we were not able to borrow the bulk of

funds. But the mortgage markets differ from the stock

the purchase price. Similarly, businesses rely on bor-

and bond markets in important ways. First, the usual

rowed capital far more than on equity investment to

borrowers in the capital markets are government enti-

finance their growth. Many small firms do not have

ties and businesses, whereas the usual borrowers in

access to the bond market and must find alternative

the mortgage markets are individuals. Second, mort-

sources of funds. Consider the state of the mortgage

gage loans are made for varying amounts and maturi-

loan markets 100 years ago. They were organized

ties, depending on the borrowers’ needs, features that

mostly to accommodate the needs of businesses and

cause problems for developing a secondary market.

the very wealthy. Much has changed since then. The
purpose of this chapter is to discuss these changes.
Chapter 11 discussed the money markets, the


in this chapter we will identify the characteristics
of typical residential mortgages, discuss the usual
terms and types of mortgages available, and review who

markets for short-term funds. Chapters 12 and 13

provides and services these loans. We will also con-

discussed the bond and stock markets. This chapter

tinue the discussion of issues in the ­mortgage-backed

discusses the mortgage markets, where borrowers—

security market and the recent crash of the subprime

individuals, businesses, and governments—can obtain

mortgage market begun in Chapter 8.

chapter 14  The Mortgage Markets


What Are Mortgages?
A mortgage is a long-term loan secured by real estate. A developer may obtain a
mortgage loan to finance the construction of an office building, or a family may obtain
a mortgage loan to finance the purchase of a home. In either case, the loan is amortized: The borrower pays it off over time in some combination of principal and interest payments that result in full payment of the debt by maturity. Table 14.1 shows
the distribution of mortgage loan borrowers. Because over 81% of mortgage loans
finance residential home purchases, that will be the primary focus of this chapter.
One way to understand the modern mortgage is to review its history. Originally,
many states had laws that prevented banks from funding mortgages so that banks
would not tie up their funds in long-term loans. The National Banking Act of 1863
further restricted mortgage lending. As a result, most mortgage contracts in the past
were arranged between individuals, usually with the help of a lawyer who brought
the parties together and drew up the papers. Such loans were generally available
only to the wealthy and socially connected. As the demand for long-term funds
increased, however, more mortgage brokers surfaced. They often originated loans
in the rapidly developing western part of the country and sold them to savings banks

and insurance companies in the East.
By 1880 mortgage bankers had learned to streamline their operations by selling
bonds to raise the long-term funds they lent. They would gather a portfolio of mortgage contracts and use them as security for an issue of bonds that were sold publicly. Many of these loans were used to finance agricultural expansion in the Midwest.
Unfortunately, an agricultural recession in the 1890s resulted in many defaults.
Land prices fell, and a large number of the mortgage bankers went bankrupt. It
became very difficult to obtain long-term loans until after World War I, when national
banks were authorized to make mortgage loans. This regulatory change caused a
tremendous real estate boom, and mortgage lending expanded rapidly.
The mortgage market was again devastated by the Great Depression in the
1930s. Millions of borrowers were without work and were unable to make their loan
payments. This led to foreclosures and land sales that caused property values to
collapse. Mortgage-lending institutions were again hit hard, and many failed.
One reason that so many borrowers defaulted on their loans was the type of
mortgage loan they had. Most mortgages in this period were balloon loans: The
borrower paid only interest for three to five years, at which time the entire loan
amount became due. The lender was usually willing to renew the debt with some
reduction in principal. However, if the borrower were unemployed, the lender would
not renew, and the borrower would default.

Table 14.1   Mortgage Loan Borrowing, 2012
Type of Property
One- to four-family dwelling

Mortgage Loans
Issued ($ millions)

Proportion of Total (%)



Multifamily dwelling



Commercial building






Source: />


Part 5  Financial Markets

As part of the recovery program from the Depression, the federal government
stepped in and restructured the mortgage market. The government took over delinquent balloon loans and allowed borrowers to repay them over long periods of time.
It is no surprise that these new types of loans were very popular. The surviving savings and loans began offering home buyers similar loans, and the high demand contributed to restoring the health of the mortgage industry.

Characteristics of the Residential Mortgage
o n li n e
Access www.interest.com
to track mortgage rates and
shop for mortgage rates in
different geographic areas.

The modern mortgage lender has continued to refine the long-term loan to make it
more desirable to borrowers. Even in the past 20 years, both the nature of the lenders and the instruments have undergone substantial changes. One of the biggest
changes is the development of an active secondary market for mortgage contracts.
We will examine the nature of mortgage loan contracts and then look at their secondary market.
Twenty years ago, savings and loan institutions and the mortgage departments
of large banks originated most mortgage loans. Some were maintained in-house by
the originator while others were sold to one of a few firms. These firms closely
tracked delinquency rates and would refuse to continue buying loans from banks
where delinquencies were very high. More recently, many loan production offices
arose that competed in real estate financing. Some of these offices are subsidiaries
of banks, and others are independently owned. As a result of the competition for
mortgage loans, borrowers could choose from a variety of terms and options. Many
of these mortgage businesses were organized around the originate-to-distribute
model where the broker originated the loan and sold it to an investor as quickly as
possible. This model increased the principal–agent problem since the originator had
little concern whether the loan was actually paid off.

Mortgage Interest Rates
The interest rate borrowers pay on their mortgages is probably the most important
factor in their decision of how much and from whom to borrow. The interest rate on
the loan is determined by three factors: current long-term market rates, the life
(term) of the mortgage, and the number of discount points paid.

1.Market rates. Long-term market rates are determined by the supply of and
demand for long-term funds, which are in turn influenced by a number of
global, national, and regional factors. As Figure 14.1 shows, mortgage rates
tend to stay above the less risky Treasury bonds most of the time but tend
to track along with them.
2.Term. Longer-term mortgages have higher interest rates than shorter-term
mortgages. The usual mortgage lifetime is either 15 or 30 years. Lenders also
offer 20-year loans, though they are not as popular. Because interest-rate risk
falls as the term to maturity decreases, the interest rate on the 15-year loan
will be substantially less than on the 30-year loan. For example, in July 2013,
the average 30-year mortgage rate was 3.5%, and the 15-year rate was 2.62%.
3.Discount points. Discount points (or simply points) are interest payments
made at the beginning of a loan. A loan with one discount point means that
the borrower pays 1% of the loan amount at closing, the moment when the

chapter 14  The Mortgage Markets


Rates (%)
Mortgage Interest Rates




















Figure 14.1  Mortgage Rates and Long-Term Treasury Interest Rates, 1985–2012
Source: />
­ orrower signs the loan paper and receives the proceeds of the loan. In exchange
for the points, the lender reduces the interest rate on the loan. In considering
whether to pay points, borrowers must determine whether the reduced interest rate over the life of the loan fully compensates for the increased up-front
expense. To make this determination, borrowers must take into account how
long they will hold on to the loan. Typically, discount points should not be paid
if the borrower will pay off the loan in five years or less. This breakeven point
is not surprising since the average home sells every five years.


The Discount Point Decision
Suppose that you are offered two loan alternatives. In the first, you pay no discount
points and the interest rate is 12%. In the second, you pay 2 discount points but
receive a lower interest rate of 11.5%. Which alternative do you choose?
To answer this question you must first compute the effective annual rate without discount points. Since the loan is compounded monthly, you pay 1% per month.
Because of the compounding, the effective annual rate is greater than the simple
annual rate. To compute the effective rate, raise 1 plus the monthly rate to the 12th
power and subtract 1. The effective annual rate on the no-point loan is thus
Effective annual rate = (1.01)12 - 1 = 0.1268 = 12.68,
Because of monthly compounding, a 12% annual percentage rate has an effective
annual rate of 12.68%. On a 30-year, $100,000 mortgage loan, your payment will be
$1,028.61 as found on a financial calculator.