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Chuyên đề tốt nghiệp: Factors affecting customer satisfaction with education consulting services at ISC Education company

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Hanoi, April, 2023

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Đoàn Thị Minh Hang - 11191667- Business English 61A

This thesis would not have been accomplished without the assistance andcontributions of respected individuals. I would like to take this opportunity toexpress my gratitude to them.

First and foremost, I would like to express my heartfelt appreciation to oursupervisor, Le Thi Ngoc Diep, M.A. Her impressive knowledge, extensiveexperience, and professional expertise in the field of research writing have been

invaluable in guiding me towards the successful completion of my study.

Second, I truly appreciate the participants who spend their time filling outmy questionnaire. To be more detailed, they are customers of ISC Education

company. Their answers lay the foundation for practical findings included in thestudy.

Finally, last but not least, I would like to extend my thanks to my family and

friends for their unwavering support throughout this journey. Their encouragement

and support were crucial in keeping me motivated and focused.

In summary, I am deeply indebted to all those who contributed to this thesis

in one way or another. I would not have been able to come this far without theirgenerous support and encouragement. Thank you all!

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The success of ISC Education company depends heavily on employee

behavior, communication, and trustworthiness, which have been identified as themost important factors for customer satisfaction. Service accessibility, despitebeing an essential component of the business, has been found to have the leastimpact on customer contentment. This conclusion is drawn from a surveyconducted on 125 clients who have been using the services of ISC Educationcompany for more than a year.

Further analysis of the data obtained from the survey reveals some

interesting insights:

e The majority of customers are male. Female clients use abroad study

consulting services at a lower rate than male counterparts, althoughthe difference is not statistically significant. Additionally, peopleover the age of 18 were the company's primary target customers, and

they were also the largest customer segment that used the firm's

service for more than one year.

e There are four main factor influencing customer satisfaction: staffconduct, credibility, communication, and service accessibility.

e Of the four factors that contribute to customer contentment, it isfound that employee conduct has the strongest influence on customer

satisfaction. On the other hand, service accessibility had the least

impact on customer contentment.

On the basis of these findings, it is recommended that the improvement in

employee’s behaviors and attire, communication, credibility and service

accessibility shoud be encouraged to increase customer satisfaction with educationconsulting service at ISC Education company. By focusing on these areas, the firmcan increase customer satisfaction and build a strong reputation for providing high-quality education consulting services.

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Figure 1: Research Model 0107. 7... ... 4Figure 2: Factors affecting customer satisfaction by Zeithaml and Bitner (2012)

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Figure 9: Customer’s opinions about credIb1ÏIfy...- --‹-s-ssssssssseeeersseresses 29

Figure 10: Customer’s opinions about service accessIbiÌ1ty... ...---‹<+- 30Figure 11: Customer’s general opinions about ISC SerVICG... -.--+-- «+2 30


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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...ceccescsesesseeesecesecseeeeeeaeeenecaeeeaeeeaeseeseeeaeeenees iLIST OF FIGURES ou... ec eceecessscesececeeeeeeseeeaecseecseeeaeccecseeeaeceaeeeaeseeeeaeeeaes 1INTRODUCTION ...- -- Ă- SG n1 HH TH HH ng Thun nrệt 1


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3.1. Characteristics of ISC’s CUStOMETS ...e cece eeeeeeesesssssssesseseseeeeeeees 253.2. Customer’s opinions about factors leading to their satisfaction... 27

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This chapter presents rationale, purposes, research questions, researchmethodology and design of the study.

1. Rational

Vietnam is currently industrializing and modernizing as its domestic

economy integrates into the global economy. This is a complex process thatrequires the country to adapt to many changes occurring worldwide, such as the

increasingly fierce competition in international markets, the rapid growth ofinformation technology, the development of corporate culture, and the constantpursuit of knowledge. As a result, the development of high-quality humanresources has become a critical priority for Vietnam, as it seeks to remain

competitive in the global economy.

Studying abroad has become a popular trend in Vietnam for a variety ofreasons. Firstly, parents hope to provide their children with access to education in

the world's leading nations, which can help them develop new skills and learnabout different cultures. In addition, the Vietnamese labor market is unable to meet

the growing demand for high-quality human resources, which has led manystudents to seek opportunities to study abroad in order to improve their career

prospects upon graduation. Moreover, studying abroad can also provide studentswith valuable experiences, such as learning to be independent, improving languageskills and gaining new perspectives on the world. Therefore, studying abroad hasbecome an essential pathway for students to achieve their full potential and to help

Vietnam achieve its goal of becoming a leading player in the global economy.

The demand for studying abroad has risen significantly in recent years,leading to a rapid increase in the number of study-abroad consulting firms. Whilethis growth has created more opportunities for students, it has also posed achallenge for the government to regulate and manage these companies. This lackof control has allowed some businesses to exploit the situation by raising service

fees and defrauding students and parents, which has resulted in a loss of trust

among consumers. As a result, finding a reliable and high-quality study abroadconsulting organization that caters to the needs of students and parents alike hasbecome increasingly difficult. Despite the challenges, there are still reputable

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companies in the market, and it is important to conduct thorough research andbackground checks to ensure that the chosen organization is trustworthy and canprovide the desired services.

In addition to building customer loyalty, creating customer satisfactionis an important factor in attracting customers to the business. In the field ofstudy abroad consulting, where the product is a service, the role of service usersis crucial as it directly affects the operation of the company. Study abroadconsulting firms must leverage their strengths to overcome their competitors’shortcomings and tackle the challenges that lie ahead when facing futureopportunities and difficulties. This requires a comprehensive understanding ofthe factors that determine consumer satisfaction with the company's services.For instance, businesses may focus on factors such as the quality of service

delivery, responsiveness to customer needs, reliability, and trustworthiness. Byaddressing these factors, companies can enhance their services and gain acompetitive edge in the market. Furthermore, it is essential for businesses tocontinually monitor and improve customer satisfaction levels to ensure long-term success and growth in the industry.

ISC Education company has made remarkable progress over the years,emerging as one of the most prominent study-abroad counseling centersworldwide. The company's professionalism, creativity, and innovation indelivering study abroad consulting services have been instrumental in making itthe market leader in Southeast Asia. ISC Education company , the company's jointventure, has been connecting Vietnamese students with top-notch education acrossthe globe for almost 30 years. In recognition of its exceptional services, thecompany won the "Best Study Abroad Consultant" award from the New ZealandMinistry of Education for three consecutive years from 2003 to 2005. To achievethese remarkable feats, ISC has taken into account various determinants thatinfluence customer satisfaction. Furthermore, recognizing the factors that impactcustomer satisfaction is essential for developing long-term strategies andsolidifying the company's position in the market. It is worth noting that thecompany's commitment to quality and excellence has been critical to its success,and ISC remains dedicated to providing world-class study abroad consultingservices to its clients.

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Consequently, with all of the above reasons, I decided to conduct research

on the topic “Factors affecting customer satisfaction with education consulting

services at ISC Education company”

2. Research objectives

The specific objectives of the study are:

e To identify factors affecting customer satisfaction with education consultingservices at ISC Education company.

e To propose feasible methods in enhancing customer satisfaction witheducation consulting services at ISC Education company.

The proposed research model is based on previous studies by Zeithaml and

Bitner (2012) and Avkiran (1994). According to Zeithaml and Bitner (2012),

customer satisfaction is influenced by their perception of service quality, productquality, price, as well as situational and personal factors. Among these factors,service quality is a key contributor to customer satisfaction. This idea is alsosupported by Kuo et al. (2013), who suggest that companies should prioritizeimproving service quality as a means of enhancing customer satisfaction.

Furthermore, Avkiran (1994) proposed the BANKSERV model to measure

service quality, which includes four main factors: staff conduct, communication,credibility, and service accessibility. Therefore, when measuring the level ofcustomer satisfaction for study abroad consulting services, it is essential to takeinto account these four factors: staff conduct, communication, credibility, and

service accessibility. By focusing on these areas, companies can better understand

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the needs and expectations of their customers, and ultimately improve their overallsatisfaction and loyalty.

Satff conduct Demographic characteristics- Gender

- Age

Figure 1: Research Model

In order to attain the research objectives, a qualitative method was used for

collecting the data that show the customers’ opinions about their satisfaction witheducation consulting services at ISC Education company via questionnaires. Basedon this, I can analyze the figures and examine the ideas to deduce the necessaryresults for the research.

4.2. Data collection method

The qualitative method was used in this study to study specifically from the

data and give the most accurate results. Questionnaire forms were chosen for thisthesis because they are a reliable and quick method to collect data from a largenumber of people in a short period of time. The research uses Likert scale to assesscustomer satisfaction with 5 different rating levels from "Strongly disagree" to

"strongly agree”.

Customers who used to use ISC Education company's service in HanoiCentre are the research subjects to get an insight into what factors contribute totheir satisfaction. A total of 125 customers of different ages and backgroundsanswered the questionnaire, providing a rich source of data to analyze.

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4.3. Data analysis method

The collected data is analyzed under the forms of charts and tables. Graphsand tables were used to explain, compare, and contrast the various concepts, factorsinfluencing customer contentment. This approach was also used to evaluate thedegree of influence of elements.

There were about 125 responses that were used for the study. The detailed

analysis is presented in the next chapter “Findings and implications”

5. Structure of the study

This study consists of six chapters:

Chapter 1: Introduction of the company — provides general informationabout the company and its service.

Chapter 2: Literature Review — gives information about the theoreticalbackground related to the topic and previous studies..

Chapter 3: Findings and discussion - presents comprehensive analysis on the

data collected, major findings, discussions.

Chapter 4: Recommendations - offers some implications for improvement

Chapter 5: Implications and conclusion - summarizes the study and indicatesthe limitations of the study and proposes suggestions for further research.

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1.1. History of formation and development

ISC Education company (ISC) is one of the largest study abroad counselingcenters in the world. It was established in 1993 in Taiwan by ISC Group and Intake,the world's leading educational organization from the UK. The company's firstoffice was opened in Taiwan, and in 1998, it opened its first office in Shanghai,China. Since then, the ISC system has been constantly expanding and developing.

Today, the company has a total of eight offices in Taiwan and 12 offices in China.

In 2000, ISC opened an office in Oxford, UK, and in 2005 and 2008, it openedoffices in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, respectively.Moreover, ISC has also developed a new office system in the Philippines andNigeria, which were established in 2011. As a result of these expansions, ISC has

a global presence with 25 international offices.

ISC's professionalism, creativity, and innovation in study abroad consultingservices have made it the market leader in Southeast Asia. Over nearly 30 years, ISChas become the first joint venture company in Vietnam to connect students withadvanced education opportunities around the world and has developed successfulcooperative relationships with partner schools from abroad. These partnerships havebeen recognized and highly appreciated by the partner schools, earning ISCEducation company the "Best Study Abroad Consultant" award from the New

Zealand Ministry of Education for three consecutive years from 2003 to 2005.

ISC provides dedicated advice to students, helping them make informedchoices and achieve their dreams. And it's not just study abroad consulting — thecompany also operates large foreign language schools in Hanoi that offer vocational

training courses and management training skills for large corporations such as

Vietnam Airlines, Vietcombank, Petrol Vietnam, Vinaphone, and other companies.

No. 17, Bui Thi Xuan Street, Nguyen Du Ward, Hai Ba

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mm Trung District, Hanoi City, Vietnam

Hanoi Centre: Ist Floor, 83A Ly Thuong Kiet,

Hanoi West Centre: 8th Floor, Daeha Building, 360

Kim Ma, Hanoi

Ho Chi Minh Centre: 5th Floor, 35 Mac Dinh Chi

St. Da Kao Ward, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City

Telephone (024)39411906

1.2. Company functions and duties

ISC Education company is an education advisory service that connects

students with overseas education opportunities in English-speaking countries. The

company aims to provide students with comprehensive consulting services thatsupport them at any level of study. Not only that, but ISC also ensures that studentshave the most favorable learning conditions possible when studying in a foreigncountry. ISC's mission is to connect students worldwide with overseas educationopportunities that have the greatest potential to impact their future in a positive

- School Application: ISC assists students with the application process foruniversities and colleges in English-speaking countries. They help students preparetheir application materials, write their personal statements, and provide guidanceon the interview process.

- After-Sale Services: ISC also provides a range of services to students oncethey have arrived at their destination. These services include assistance in finding

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accommodation, booking flights, extending visas, and adjusting to life in a new

Currently, ISC is comprised of five main departments: office, consulting,accounting, technical, and marketing. These departments work independently mostof the time, but they also collaborate with each other when needed to performcommon tasks.

e The office department is primarily responsible for maintaining relationshipswith school partners and embassies. It also collects information on potentialstudents, which is then passed on to the consulting department.

e The consulting department, in turn, provides appropriate advice on studying

abroad to the students.

e The accounting department, on the other hand, is responsible forinventorying fixed equipment purchases, tracking revenues, makingfinancial statements, monitoring debts, and more.

e The technical department operates and designs the company's websites.Meanwhile, the marketing department focuses on developing the company's

social networking sites such as YouTube and Facebook to increase brand

Overall, the independent office model and the division of labor into variousdepartments enable ISC to provide efficient and quality services to its clients.

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1.4. Education advisory service

ISC Education company is an education advisory service that assists

students who want to study abroad by connecting them with schools around theworld. This service is unique because it provides personalized guidance to eachindividual based on their specific requirements. With the help of this service,students can obtain comprehensive information about the country they wish tostudy in, including its culture, lifestyle, learning environment, and expenses.Armed with this knowledge, students can make informed decisions about where tostudy.

In addition to assisting students, ISC Education company also benefitsoverseas schools by providing them with information about prospective students.This information includes their academic level, English proficiency, financialstatus, and other personal information. This allows schools to make informeddecisions about whether or not to accept the students.

By bridging the gap between students and schools, ISC Education company

plays a vital role in fulfilling the needs of both parties. The company acts as amediator, facilitating communication and understanding between students and

schools to ensure that both sides agree to each other's terms.

1.5. The process of study abroad service

In the field of study abroad services, there are various responsibilities thatneed to be fulfilled to ensure that students have a successful and fulfilling

experience. One of the most important duties is to assist students in selecting theirmajor, specialization, schools, and countries. This requires providing educationalguidance and counseling to help students make informed decisions about theirfuture academic and career paths. Additionally, there are other sub-departmentsthat play a crucial role in the study abroad process, such as visa procedures,

language learning, and document translation and notarization. These departmentswork together to ensure that students can navigate the complex administrativeprocedures involved in studying abroad with ease.

Moreover, study abroad advisors also need to actively cultivate andmaintain relationships with partner schools and universities. This is importantbecause it enables them to send students to high-quality educational institutions

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that align with their academic goals and interests. Furthermore, advisors need toensure that students receive appropriate support and care while studying abroad,

including housing, healthcare, and emergency assistance

1.5.1. Customer-seeking process

A key aspect of providing study abroad services is customer engagementand marketing.

e Create relationships with schools and English centers

In order to attract and retain customers, it is important for the marketingdepartment to establish strong relationships with schools and English centers.These institutions are the main sources of potential customers for ISC. By

collaborating with language centers, ISC can create mutually beneficialrelationships where English centers can increase their student enrollment and ISCcan promote its study abroad programs and exhibitions to those who are interestedin studying abroad. It is also important to create a team of collaborators at schools

and foreign language centers who can provide the necessary information to ISCabout the subjects and convey information about ISC to students who participatein the club and throughout the school. This potential team can also be responsible

for managing foreign language clubs under the protection of ISC. By building these

relationships and networks, ISC can expand its reach and provide morecomprehensive study abroad services to students.

e Building marketing activities

Marketing activities play a crucial role in enhancing ISC's reputation image,especially when it comes to attracting customers who are interested in studyingabroad. Currently, ISC is focusing on organizing study abroad seminars andexhibitions, advertising on social network sites, as well as distributing posters andleaflets. These activities are aimed at providing potential customers with a morecomprehensive understanding of ISC's study abroad programs and services.

Organizing seminars and exhibitions has proven to be an effective method

in enhancing the image of ISC. Through these events, ISC can directly connectwith potential customers, provide them with detailed information about their studyabroad programs, and answer any questions they may have. Additionally, seminarsand exhibitions also serve as a platform for ISC to showcase their expertise in the


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study abroad industry. Apart from seminars and exhibitions, ISC is also utilizingdifferent social network sites to promote their services. This is a great way to reachout to a wide audience and create brand awareness. With millions of users on socialmedia platforms, advertising on these sites can help ISC to attract potentialcustomers from all over the world. Posters and leaflets are another effective wayof promoting ISC's study abroad programs. These materials are usually distributedin high-traffic areas such as universities and other educational institutions. Bydistributing these materials, ISC can reach out to a wider audience and providethem with a brief overview of their services.

Overall, ISC's marketing activities are well-planned and carefully executedwith the aim of enhancing their reputation image and attracting customers who are

interested in studying abroad. By utilizing a variety of different tools andplatforms, ISC is able to create brand awareness, connect with potential customers,

and ultimately increase their customer base.

e Building study abroad programs

ISC has a range of programs that are categorized for different marketingstrategies to ensure effectiveness. One of these programs is the self-funded studyabroad program, designed for students who have both the desire and financialcapability to study abroad on their own. This program is completely undertaken bythe company, from the moment the student's application is received to the timewhen the student completes the course registered with ISC. As such, ISC takes fullresponsibility for the student's learning throughout the entire process. To ensurethe completion of each student's learning process through ISC contacts, signing aresponsibility contract is an indispensable action.

On the other hand, for students who receive government scholarships, ISConly helps them complete the application procedure in Vietnam without chargingany service fee. However, ISC is not responsible for the study of these students.Despite this, ISC still provides support and guidance to all students, regardless of

which program they are enrolled in. This ensures that all students are able to make

the most of their study abroad experience, and gain valuable knowledge and skillsthat will help them in their future careers.


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1.5.2. Procedures for overseas students

ISC receives the student's documents in the original Vietnamese version,and then proceeds to translate and send them to partner schools. If the student isaccepted by the school, ISC helps them with the payment of the first semester'stuition fees and issues a payment receipt. If necessary, ISC can arrange a foreignlanguage study period at schools or foreign language schools abroad.

At the same time, ISC organizes workshops for students who need to submitdocuments for VISA interviews, in order to help them qualify. After obtaining theletter of acceptance and tuition fee receipt, the documents are submitted along withthe student's application to the embassy of the country where the student will bestudying abroad to apply for a VISA. ISC helps students complete the preparation

work in Vietnam, including buying plane tickets, preparing for pick-up at the

airport, settling into a new life, and quickly integrating themselves into their newenvironment.

Once the students have their VISA and have settled down, ISC continues to

keep in touch with them and the school in order to monitor their learning situation.In addition, ISC is also responsible for transferring money from the family to thestudent. Therefore, the company coordinates with families and schools to managethe students very specifically and accurately. This is an indispensable part of theprocess of providing ISC study abroad counseling services, as it guarantees that

students studying abroad through ISC receive 100% success in their courses, andit also reflects ISC's responsibility and reputation.

1.5.3. Building collaborative relationships with schools around the world

ISC maintains close relationships with international schools by beingcautious and ensuring the success of the student's study abroad. This is usuallysupported by the embassies of the two countries.

Once both parties have established a mutual understanding, they can worktogether to organize seminars or exhibitions to introduce the school and itsprograms to individuals interested in studying abroad. After that, the two parties

will sign responsibility contracts and through which the company can send their

students to study at the school. These contracts outline the responsibilities of boththe school and the company, and ensure that the student's learning and living


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conditions are of the highest quality. ISC continues to provide support for studentseven after they arrive at the international school, ensuring that they have a smoothand successful study abroad experience.


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This chapter presents the theoretical background of the study, including service,

educational advisory service, service quality and customer satisfaction

2.1. Service

2.1.1. Definition of service

Many theories have been proposed to explain what service is. According to

William J. Stanton (1974), services are distinct, intangible activities that generate

enjoyment when promoted to consumers and/or industrial users and are not alwaysrelated to the selling of a product or service. This means that services can beexperienced and enjoyed without having to purchase anything else. It is importantto note that service can take different forms and be provided in various contexts.For example, services can be provided in person, over the phone, or through the

Philip Kotler (1977) supports this view by stating that service is essentiallyintangible and its production may not be tied to a physical product. He also addsthat “Service is any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another, which

does not result in the ownership of anything.” This means that service is not

something that can be owned or possessed, but rather something that is providedto create value and benefits for the recipient.

Similarly, According to Lovelock, Christopher, and Paul Patterson, serviceis defined as economic activities that generate value and offer advantages forconsumers at certain times and locations as a consequence of bringing about adesired change in or on behalf of the recipient of the service. This indicates thatservices may be adjusted to each customer's specific needs, and that they can havea beneficial influence on the customer's life or business.

Overall, although these concepts are defined in a variety of contexts, all ofthem emphasised that service is intangible and it brings benefits to customers.Whether it's through creating value, providing satisfaction, or bringing about a

desired change, service is an important element of the economy and society as a

whole. While it may be intangible and difficult to define, it is clear that service

plays a crucial role in meeting the needs and desires of customers.


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that because services are not tangible items, they cannot be seen, touched, felt, or

tasted before being purchased. Consumers must rely on the service provider'sreferences, reputation, and facilities to determine the quality of service. In addition,because services are intangible, they are often more difficult to evaluate thanproducts. This means that service providers need to be highly skilled in

communicating their value proposition to potential customers.

Inseparability is another significant characteristic of services thatdistinguishes them from products. This relates to the fact that services are producedand consumed at the same time. Unlike products, customers are an integral part ofthe service delivery process. This means that service providers have to be highly

skilled in managing customer expectations, and in ensuring that the service isdelivered in a way that meets the needs of the customer. It also means that thequality of service can be highly dependent on the quality of the interaction betweenthe customer and the service provider.

Variability is a third characteristic of services that makes them difficult tocontrol. This is because the quality and consistency of services can vary dependingon when, where, and how they are provided. For example, a restaurant may offer

excellent service during quiet periods, but may struggle to maintain the same level

of quality during busy periods. This means that service providers need to be highlyskilled in managing the variability of their services, and in ensuring that they areable to provide consistent quality to their customers.

Perishability is the final characteristic of services, and refers to the fact thatservices cannot be stored for later use or sale. This means that service providersneed to be highly skilled in managing their capacity, and in ensuring that they areable to meet the needs of their customers in real-time. For example, a hotel may befully booked one night, but have empty rooms the next. This means that service


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providers need to be highly skilled in managing their inventory, and in ensuring

that they can maximize their revenue by filling their capacity when it is available.

2.2. Educational advisory service

2.2.1. Definition of education

Education has been a topic of significant research for many years, andphilosophers have defined it in various ways. Nguyen Van Tuan (2007), forexample, describes education as a process of transferring knowledge, skills, andexperiences from one person or group to another through teaching, training, orresearch. This process not only facilitates the acquisition of new knowledge andskills but also encourages learners to develop their strengths and interests. Bydoing so, they can contribute to society and make use of their own views, interests,and strengths to reach their full potential. In addition, education can also helpindividuals to gain a sense of purpose and direction in life, allowing them to pursuetheir passions and achieve their goals.

2.2.2. Definition of Educational counseling service

Today's education system offers a plethora of learning opportunities forstudents, both domestically and internationally. However, students often facechallenges when deciding which school, course, or country to pursue their studiesin, that align with their educational needs, career goals, and financial limitations.Therefore, the student needs the correct guidance and support through educationaladvising. Educational advising plays a vital role in education systems as it oftenhelps students solve their academic problems and often contributes to their

academic and occupational success (McGill, 2019).

In 1982 Endo et al define academic advising is the intentional interactionbetween students and faculty that supports student growth and success. Goodacademic advising involves sharing the advisor's knowledge and experiences tohelp students make informed decisions and achieve their aspirations, which can

significantly impact their future success (Baker et al., 2010).

From the viewpoints above, it is suggested that educational advising is theprocess by which counselors offer educational guidance to students, ensuring thatthey make informed academic decisions that align with their goals and aspirations.


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This process empowers students to make the most appropriate academic choices,leading to successful outcomes in their academic and professional lives.

impact on its capacity to meet explicit or implicit demands. This implies that

quality is not limited to just one aspect of a product or service but is a combinationof various elements that contribute towards fulfilling the needs of the consumers.

Moreover, the concept of quality is closely linked to the value of an offer,which can evoke either satisfaction or dissatisfaction on the part of the user. Theidea of service quality, as defined by Parasuraman (1988), is the differencebetween customer expectations and perceptions of service. In other words, it is thevariance between what a customer expects from a service and what they receive.Measuring service quality in this manner is a valid approach that can helpmanagement identify gaps in their service offerings.

Thus, it is evident that quality and service are intertwined, and measuringservice quality is an essential aspect of understanding the quality of an offer. Byidentifying the gaps in the service offering, management can work to improve the

quality of the service and ultimately enhance the overall value proposition for the

2.3.2. Methods for measuring service quality

In the case of physical commodities, quality may be determined byinspecting the items. A product's quality can be assessed using a variety ofmethods, including visual examination, testing, and quality control techniques.

Quality control can be utilized to ensure that only high-quality products aredistributed to clients by checking requirements and rejecting faulty goods. Due tothe unique characteristics of services, such as intangibility or inseparability,

service quality cannot be measured in the same ways as physical product quality.


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Unlike tangible goods, services cannot be examined before they are delivered tothe customer. Instead, service quality is assessed by the customer through their

experience of the service.

To evaluate service quality, customers compare expected service quality toperceived quality when they receive it. This means that service providers mustmeet or exceed their customers’ expectations in order to deliver high-qualityservice. In order to ensure that service quality is consistently high, there are mainlytwo methods for measuring service quality: gap analysis and service performance

e Gap analysis

The gap analysis model of service quality was developed by Parasuraman,A. et al. in 1985. The model indicates that customer perception of quality is

influenced by a series of five distinct gaps, which are outlined below:

Gap | 1s the difference between what customers anticipate and managementperception. This gap is caused by a lack of proper market research and upwardcommunication. This disparity might be addressed by implementing appropriateresearch initiatives to better understand client wants and needs and enhancing thecommunications network. This could be quantified using the SERVQUAL scaleand comparing management and customer scores.

Gap 2: There is a discrepancy between management perspective and servicequality specifications. This gap exists in service organizations for a variety ofreasons, including a lack of management commitment to service quality and

ineffective service leadership. Gap is possible to close it by standardizing theservice delivery process and establishing appropriate organizational goals.

Gap 3 is the difference between service quality specifications and servicedelivery. The third gap is caused by inconsistencies in real service delivery, whichoccurs when service providers or personnel fail to execute at the level required bymanagement. It is the result of inefficient recruiting, a lack of appropriateincentives and motives, and other factors. This gap might be closed by providingsuitable support systems for employees, as well as a stronger human resourcemanagement system, among other things.